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Chapter 47. Oncology

The proportion of people with cancer who are alive, divided by the proportion of people of a similar age expected to be alive in the absence of cancer, is known as the

A. Overall survival

B. Disease-free survival

C. Disease-specific survival

D. Relative survival

The correct answer is D. Relative Survival

The ideal target for a targeted therapy would include all of the following characteristics except

A. Can be measured on cancer cells

B. Crucial to the malignant phenotype

C. Inhibition leads to regression or death

D. Expressed on vital organs and tissues

The correct answer is D. Expressed on vital organs and tissues

Which of the following is true regarding immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors?

A. CTLA-4 is upregulated on activated T cells and serves to dampen the T-cell response.

B. When PD-1 on tumor cells binds to PD-L1 on T cells, it leads to T-cell anergy.

C. The checkpoint inhibitors have only proven effective in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.

D. Checkpoint inhibitors have minimal toxicity but can cause significant immunosuppression that may require cessation of therapy.

The correct answer is A. CTLA-4 is upregulated on activated T cells and serves to dampen the T-cell response

Regarding soft tissue sarcoma, which of the following is correct?

A. The presence of nodal metastases is considered stage IV disease for sarcoma of the trunk, extremities, or retroperitoneum.

B. For a patient presenting with a new mass, when sarcoma is suspected, excisional biopsy is always the preferred method of diagnosis.

C. Twenty percent of patients with extremity sarcoma may require amputation for surgical therapy.

D. The most common site for soft tissue sarcoma is on the extremity.

The correct answer is D. The most common site for soft tissue sarcoma is on the extremity

Which of the following statements regarding the surgical treatment of melanoma is true?

A. Sentinel ...

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