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Chapter 43. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery

Normal skin has a ratio of type I to type III collagen of

A. 2:1

B. 4:1

C. 1:2

D. 1:4

The correct answer is B. 4:1. The ratio of type I to type III collagen in normal skin is 4:1. During the proliferative phase of healing, skin has increased presence of type III collagen. During the maturation and remodeling phase, type III collagen is replaced by type I, thus approaching the normal 4:1 type I to type III collagen ratio.

The rectus abdominis flap is a Mathes and Nahai type ___ flap with ___ vascular pedicle source(s).

A. II, a dominant and minor

B II, two dominant

C III, a dominant and minor

D III, two dominant

E IV, a segmental

The correct answer is D. III, two dominant. The rectus abdominis muscle has two dominant pedicle vascular sources, including the deep superior epigastric vessels and deep inferior epigastric vessels, with classification as a Mathes and Nahai type III flap.

Infantile hemangiomas are associated with which gene?

A. PIK3CA

B. GLUT1

C. RASA1

D. PTEN

The correct answer is B. GLUT1. Infantile hemangiomas are associated with the GLUT1 gene. PIK3CA is associated with overgrowth syndromes, such as CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, spinal/skeletal/scoliosis syndrome). RASA1 gene is associated with capillary malformations. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is associated with many tumors. In terms of vascular anomaly syndromes, the PTEN mutation is associated with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant syndrome that includes macrocephaly, genital lentiginosis, gastrointestinal polyps, and arteriovenous fistulas.

When a patient with an upper extremity amputation presents to the emergency department, the first step is to

A. Obtain x-ray

B. Remove tourniquet

C Perform primary and secondary trauma surveys

D. Proceed directly to the operating room

The correct answer is C. Perform primary and secondary trauma surveys. Initial management of an upper extremity amputation should ...

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