The biopsy of tissue for histological exam remains one of the most informative and cost-effective tests in medical practice, and one of the most common procedures performed by dermatologists.
In general, all tissues removed during a surgical procedure should be submitted for histopathologic examination.
Ultimately, the key factor in biopsy success is balancing the need for acquiring an adequate sample for histopathologic evaluation with minimizing the cosmetic and functional sequelae of the biopsy itself on the patient.
Local anesthesia is a prerequisite for a pain-free biopsy; while patients may rarely request that a biopsy be performed without anesthesia, this should be discouraged, particularly as postbiopsy hemostasis may be more painful than the biopsy itself.
Patients should receive written instructions regarding wound care.
Shave biopsies are the cornerstone of dermatologic practice, and are useful in most situations when performed appropriately.
The “excisional biopsy” that is recommended for pigmented lesions suspicious for melanoma includes a deep shave or scoop biopsy.
Multiple scouting biopsies may be useful when assessing for lentigo maligna.
When sampling for direct immunofluorescence, a punch biopsy from lower extremity skin should generally be avoided both due to a risk of false-negative results and a slower rate of healing.
For alopecia, punch biopsy for transverse (horizontal) and vertical sections should ideally be performed.
Pitfalls and Cautions
Often the greatest risk associated with a biopsy is not performing it at all; in the hands of experienced dermatologic surgeons, small biopsies yield nearly undetectable scars, and the diagnostic benefits far outweigh the risks.
Biopsies from sebaceous skin, such as the nose, may leave pronounced scars that may benefit from later dermabrasion or resurfacing.
Patient Education Points
Most biopsy sites heal very quickly, but patients should understand that surrounding erythema or excess fibrin formation may be seen, particularly in areas that are subject to friction.
Preoperative biopsy-site photography may be helpful to reduce the risk of surgical site identification challenges.
The biopsy of tissue for histologic examination remains the most informative and cost-effective test in medical practice and one of the most common procedures performed by dermatologists. Usually, a visible lesion is biopsied, but multiple random skin biopsies from the abdomen and thighs may be helpful in the setting of angiotropic lymphoma presenting as fever of unknown origin1, to obtain tissue for fibroblast culture to assess for a genodermatosis,2 or to assess the possibility of immunobullous disease in a patient with generalized pruritus. Reflectance confocal microscopy can be useful to localize the best area to biopsy in a large, poorly defined lesion....