Renal cysts are epithelium-lined cavities filled with fluid or semisolid material that develop primarily from renal tubular elements. One or more simple cysts are found in 50% of individuals over the age of 50 years. They are rarely symptomatic and have little clinical significance. In contrast, generalized cystic diseases are associated with cysts scattered throughout the cortex and medulla of both kidneys and can progress to ESRD (Table 22–10).
Table 22–10.Clinical features of renal cystic disease. ||Download (.pdf) Table 22–10. Clinical features of renal cystic disease.
| ||Simple Renal Cysts ||Acquired Renal Cysts ||Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease ||Medullary Sponge Kidney ||Medullary Cystic Kidney |
|Prevalence ||Common ||Dialysis patients ||1:1000 ||1:5000 ||Rare |
|Inheritance ||None ||None ||Autosomal dominant ||None ||Autosomal dominant |
|Age at onset ||… ||… ||20–40 ||40–60 ||Adulthood |
|Kidney size ||Normal ||Small ||Large ||Normal ||Small |
|Cyst location ||Cortex and medulla ||Cortex and medulla ||Cortex and medulla ||Collecting ducts ||Corticomedullary junction |
|Hematuria ||Occasional ||Occasional ||Common ||Rare ||Rare |
|Hypertension ||None ||Variable ||Common ||None ||None |
|Associated complications ||None ||Adenocarcinoma in cysts ||Urinary tract infections, renal calculi, cerebral aneurysms 10–15%, hepatic cysts 40–60% ||Renal calculi, urinary tract infections ||Polyuria, salt wasting |
|Kidney failure ||Never ||Always ||Frequently ||Never ||Always |