Chapter 45. Medical Mycology
Which statement regarding fungi is correct?
(A) All fungi are able to grow as yeasts and molds.
(B) Although fungi are eukaryotes, they lack mitochondria.
(C) Fungi are photosynthetic.
(D) Fungi have one or more nuclei and chromosomes.
(E) Few fungi possess cell membranes.
Which statement regarding fungal growth and morphology is correct?
(A) Pseudohyphae are produced by all yeasts.
(B) Molds produce hyphae that may or may not be partitioned with cross-walls or septa.
(C) Conidia are produced by sexual reproduction.
(D) Most yeasts reproduce by budding and lack cell walls.
(E) Most pathogenic dimorphic molds produce hyphae in the host and yeasts at 30°C.
Which statement regarding fungal cell walls is correct?
(A) The major components of fungal cell walls are proteins such as chitin, glucans, and mannans.
(B) The cell wall is not essential for fungal viability or survival.
(C) Ligands associated with the cell walls of certain fungi mediate attachment to host cells.
(D) Fungal cell wall components are the targets for the major classes of antifungal antibiotics, such as the polyenes and azoles.
(E) Fungal cell wall components rarely stimulate an immune response.
A 54-year-old man developed a slowly worsening headache followed by gradual, progressive weakness in his right arm. A brain scan revealed a left cerebral lesion. At surgery an abscess surrounded by granulomatous material was found. Sections of the tissue and subsequent culture showed darkly pigmented septate hyphae indicating phaeohyphomycosis. This infection may be caused by species of which genus below?
A 35-year-old man is a farmer in a tropical area of West Africa. He developed a persistent scaly papule on his leg. Ten months later a new crop of wart-like purplish scaly lesions appeared. These lesions slowly progressed to a cauliflower-like appearance. Chromoblastomycosis (chromomycosis) was diagnosed. Which statement regarding this disease is most correct?