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  1. Explain sex and gender influence on health and disease in select chronic conditions.

  2. Explain sex and gender differences in medication response for select chronic conditions.

  3. Summarize literature pertaining to chronic diseases that impact women's health.

  4. Compare and contrast prevention and treatment interventions for select chronic conditions between women and men.


To achieve optimal pharmacotherapy in women, health care providers must understand the impact of sex and gender on disease presentation and effectiveness and safety of medications. Presently, the scientific evidence has documented many sex/gender differences that are clinically important to health care providers. This chapter is an overview of some sex/gender differences emphasizing chronic diseases and medication response based upon available data. Examples of some of the concepts discussed below are listed in Tables 7-1, 7-2, 7-3.

Table 7-1Examples of Sex and Gender Differences in Disease Prevalence
Table 7-2Examples of Sex Gender Differences in Disease Physiology and Pathophysiology

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