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Key Features

  • Pathogen mainly affects small children although disease can also occur in older adults

  • Cases are spread worldwide

  • There are 17 recognized genotypes

Clinical Findings

  • Gastrointestinal and respiratory illness

  • Otitis

  • Neonatal sepsis

  • Fever without a detectable source

  • Gastroenteritis

  • Flaccid paralysis

  • Myalgias (which may be epidemic)

  • Diffuse maculopapular and palmar-plantar rashes

  • Aseptic meningitis

  • Intracranial hemorrhage

  • Seizures

  • Acute disseminated encephalitis

Diagnosis

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) helps determine the viral cause of neonatal sepsis or central nervous system (CNS) symptoms in children younger than 5 years

  • Stool and nasopharyngeal samples

  • Cerebrospinal fluid samples for CNS-related infections

Treatment

  • Supportive

  • Intravenous immunoglobulin was anecdotally successful in one case of parechovirus dilated cardiomyopathy

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