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KEY IMAGES

Long axis of kidney

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Video 12-01: Normal kidney longitudinal image

This longitudinal view of the kidney demonstrates the white perinephric fat surrounding the darker cortex of the kidney. In the center is the hyperechoic renal pelvis, which is brighter due to the fat. The operator is fanning through the kidney to give a full view. Also visible are rib shadows, spleen, and some bowel gas. The operator is carefully adjusting the angle of the transducer to maximize the window between the ribs.

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Short axis of kidney

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Video 12-02: Normal kidney transverse image

The operator has now rotated 90 degrees to demonstrate the kidney in the short axis. The operator then fans superior to inferior to evaluate the kidney from top to bottom. In this normal kidney the vasculature can be seen entering the renal pelvis as well as the spleen, aorta, rib shadows, and bowel gas. The operator is carefully adjusting the angle of the transducer to maximize the window between the ribs.

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Normal kidney anatomy

Normal kidney image with labels

Color Doppler of normal kidney

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Video 12-03: Normal kidney with color Doppler

Color Doppler is a more advanced ultrasound technique. This video demonstrates that the color has been set to detect low flow states. With this setting engaged, the blood flow in the renal arteries and veins are enhanced with color. The areas that remain anechoic are the urinary collection system. This technique can help distinguish vasculature from dilated collecting systems. It is important to remember that red and blue indicate directionality and not the oxygenation status of the blood.

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Female bladder, longitudinal

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Video 12-04: Full bladder in a female pelvis

In this longitudinal view of the female pelvis, the anechoic bladder can be seen with a diamond shape. The uterus is visible to the left and deep of the bladder. Edge artifact casts shadows to the bottom of the screen from the curved edges of the bladder. The operator is fanning from left to right to evaluate the whole bladder. No free fluid is seen in the pelvis.

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Foley balloon in deflated bladder

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Video 12-05: Foley balloon in empty bladder

If a urinary catheter is appropriately placed the bladder should completely empty. This clip demonstrates that in a male pelvis. The Foley balloon can ...

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