1. A urine output in adults of <100 mL/d would be classified as which of the following?
The correct answer is B. Oliguria is defined as <500 mL of urine produced per day. Anuria is essentially absent urine production defined in adults with a threshold of <100 mL of urine produced per day. Dysuria refers to pain upon urination. Hematuria refers to red blood cells in the urine.
2. Nitrogen retention results in an elevated blood urea nitrogen concentration and is termed “azotemia.” Azotemia can be classified as prerenal, renal, and postrenal. Which one of the following is a cause of prerenal azotemia?
A. Reduced blood flow to the kidney as a result of renal artery stenosis
B. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
C. Nephrolithiasis with obstruction of urinary outflow
D. Acute tubular necrosis as a result of exposure to a toxin
The correct answer is A. Choices B and D are both examples of renal azotemia because the diseases are intrinsic to the kidney. Choice C is an example of postrenal azotemia because the problem is related to urine flow out of the kidney.
3. Which of the following descriptions most accurately describes uremia?
A. A deterioration in renal function that persists for >3 months
B. Nitrogen retention as a result of kidney dysfunction
C. A clinical term to describe the patient's signs and symptoms when symptomatic end-stage renal failure is present
D. A reduction in the volume of urine output
The correct answer is C. Choice A is the definition for chronic renal failure. Choice B is the definition of azotemia. Choice D is the definition for oliguria or, if more severe, anuria.
4. Which of the following pairs regarding the consequences of untreated renal failure is an incorrect match?
A. Hyperkalemia from potassium retention/Cardiac arrhythmias
B. Decreased production of erythropoietin/Thrombocytopenia
C. Decreased synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/Hypocalcemia with hyperparathyroidism
D. Salt and water retention/Hypertension
The correct answer is B. Decreased production of erythropoietin results in decreased synthesis of red blood cells and, subsequently, anemia. Untreated renal failure can result in dysfunctional platelets, but not thrombocytopenia. All of the other choices are correct matches.
5. Which of the following statements about creatinine is not true?
A. The creatinine concentration in blood is inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate.
B. Creatinine is higher in females ...