1. Which of the following lung disorders named on the left side of the dash is a mismatch with the anatomical portion of the lung affected by the disease that is listed on the right side of the dash?
A. Pulmonary embolism—Pulmonary vasculature
C. Sarcoidosis—Lung interstitium
D. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—Pulmonary vasculature
The correct answer is D. The anatomical portion of the lung affected in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the airways.
2. Which of the following tests is not part of a traditional blood gas panel?
A. Partial pressure of oxygen
B. Partial pressure of nitrogen
C. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
The correct answer is B. The partial pressure of nitrogen is not used diagnostically.
3. Which of the following items is not part of the anion gap calculation?
The correct answer is D. The anion gap is the difference between the major free cations (sodium and potassium) and free anions (chloride and bicarbonate). Calcium is not included in the calculation of the anion gap.
4. For patients with uncontrolled diabetes, which of the following is likely to be present?
The correct answer is A. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes have increased ketoacids, lowering the arterial pH, and producing an increased anion gap.
5. For patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which of the following is likely to be present?
The correct answer is B. The patient has respiratory acidosis because of decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide, resulting in an increase in carbonic acid, which lowers the arterial pH.
6. For patients with severe chronic vomiting, which of the following is likely to be present?