1. One of the four major plasma lipoproteins has a lipid core in which the cholesterol esters are in higher concentrations than the triglycerides, and the shell contains only apolipoprotein B-100. Which one of the following lipoproteins has this composition?
B. Very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)
C. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
D. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
The correct answer is C. The apolipoproteins for all of the other plasma lipoproteins are different. In addition, triglycerides are in higher concentration than cholesterol esters in the core of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins.
2. Which one of the following statements is true?
A. A high concentration of HDL is desirable.
B. A high concentration of LDL is desirable.
C. A high concentration of C-reactive protein is desirable.
D. A high concentration of total cholesterol is desirable.
The correct answer is A. Low concentrations of LDL, C-reactive protein, and total cholesterol are desirable.
3. All but one of the disorders or conditions below is associated with a correctable form of hypertension. Identify the choice that is not a correctable form of hypertension.
C. Positive history for ingestion of corticosteroids
D. Adenocarcinoma of the lung
The correct answer is D. Adenocarcinoma of the lung may be surgically correctable in some patients, but it is not likely to be a cause of hypertension. All of the other cases are causes of hypertension that can be corrected by surgery or changes in medication.
4. All but one of the following tests is likely to be especially informative in the initial evaluation of the patient with hypertension. Which of the choices below represents the least informative test for evaluation of hypertension?
A. Electrolyte measurements
B. Creatinine concentration and plasma
The correct answer is D. The first three choices provide information about renal, vascular, and adrenal causes of hypertension.
5. In the evaluation of the patient for a noninfectious causes of vasculitis, which of the following tests is least likely to be informative?
A. Antibodies directed against antigens in neutrophils (ANCA)