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The Preterm Newborn

Compared to term infants, neonates born prematurely have higher associated rates of which of the following?

a. Sleep apnea

b. Developmental delay

c. Congenital malformations

d. All of the above

What is a reason for the decrease in preterm birth from 12% in 2007 to 10% in 2014?

a. Liberalized use of cerclage

b. Decrease in teen birth rate

c. Universal cervical length screening

d. Use of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate

Respiratory distress syndrome contributes to which of the following comorbidities?

a. Neurological damage

b. Pulmonary hypertension

c. Necrotizing enterocolitis

d. All of the above

What is the mechanism of action by which surfactant prevents respiratory distress syndrome in neonatal lungs?

a. Clears fluid from the lungs

b. Dilates the pulmonary vasculature

c. Lowers surface tension in the alveoli

d. Aids in maturation of the terminal bronchioles

Respiratory distress syndrome can develop in the term infant as surfactant can be inactivated by which of the following substances?

a. Blood

b. Vernix

c. Meconium

d. All of the above

What is the etiology of the diffuse reticulogranular infiltrate seen on the chest radiograph below?

Used with permission from Dr. Becky Ennis.

a. Persistent fetal circulation

b. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

c. Respiratory distress syndrome

d. Transient tachypnea of the newborn


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