Cartilage is a tough, durable form of supporting connective tissue, characterized by an extracellular matrix (ECM) with high concentrations of GAGs and proteoglycans, interacting with collagen and elastic fibers. Structural features of its matrix make cartilage ideal for a variety of mechanical and protective roles within the adult skeleton and elsewhere (Figure 7–1).
Distribution of cartilage in adults.
(a) There are three types of adult cartilage distributed in many areas of the skeleton, particularly in joints and where pliable support is useful, as in the ribs, ears, and nose. Cartilage support of other tissues throughout the respiratory tract is also prominent. The photomicrographs show the main features of (b) hyaline cartilage, (c) elastic cartilage, and (d) fibrocartilage. Dense connective tissue of perichondrium is shown here with hyaline and elastic cartilage. (Reproduced, with permission, from McKinley M, O'Loughlin VD. Human Anatomy. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008).
Cartilage ECM has a firm consistency that allows the tissue to bear mechanical stresses without permanent distortion. In the respiratory tract, ears, and nose, cartilage forms the framework supporting softer tissues. Because of its resiliency and smooth, lubricated surface, cartilage provides cushioning and sliding regions within skeletal joints and facilitates bone movements. As described in Chapter 8, cartilage also guides development and growth of long bones, both before and after birth.
Cartilage consists of cells called chondrocytes (Gr. chondros, cartilage + kytos, cell) embedded in the ECM which unlike connective tissue proper contains no other cell types. Chondrocytes synthesize and maintain all ECM components and are located in matrix cavities called lacunae.
The physical properties of cartilage depend on electrostatic bonds between type II collagen fibrils, hyaluronan, and the sulfated GAGs on densely packed proteoglycans. Its semi-rigid consistency is attributable to water bound to the negatively charged hyaluronan and GAG chains extending from proteoglycan core proteins, which in turn are enclosed within a dense meshwork of thin type II collagen fibrils. The high content of bound water allows cartilage to serve as a shock absorber, an important functional role.
All types of cartilage lack vascular supplies and chondrocytes receive nutrients by diffusion from capillaries in surrounding connective tissue (the perichondrium). In some skeletal elements, large blood vessels do traverse cartilage to supply other tissues, but these vessels release few nutrients to the chondrocytes. As might be expected of cells in an avascular tissue, chondrocytes exhibit low metabolic activity. Cartilage also lacks nerves.
The perichondrium (Figure 7–2) is a sheath of dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage in most places, forming an interface between the cartilage and the tissues supported by the cartilage. The perichondrium harbors the blood supply serving the cartilage and a small neural component. Articular cartilage, which covers the ends ...