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Part VII: Immunology

Which one of the following is an attribute of the innate, rather than the adaptive (acquired), arm of our host defenses?

(A) Is highly specific in its response to individual bacterial species

(B) Responds to viruses and fungi, but not bacteria

(C) Exhibits memory following exposure to bacteria

(D) Is part of our host defense against bacteria but not against fungi

(E) Is as effective the first time it is exposed to bacteria as it is subsequent times

Regarding haptens, which one of the following is the most accurate?

(A) A hapten is the antigen-binding site of an immunoglobulin.

(B) A hapten cannot induce antibody by itself but can do so when covalently bound to a carrier protein.

(C) A hapten can bind to the antigen receptors of CD4-positive T cells without being processed by antigen-presenting cells.

(D) A hapten is defined by its ability to bind to the smaller of the two polypeptides that comprise the class I MHC proteins.

Certain components of our immune system are characterized by two attributes: being able (1) to respond specifically to microbes and (2) to exhibit memory of having responded to a particular microbe previously. Which one of the following has BOTH specificity and memory?

(A) B cells

(B) Natural killer cells

(C) Dendritic cells

(D) Macrophages

(E) Neutrophils

Your patient says that she must travel on business 3 days from now to a country where hepatitis A is endemic. She just read in the newspaper that there are two types of protection against this disease: one is a vaccine that contains killed hepatitis A virus, and the other is a serum globulin preparation that contains antibodies to the virus. She asks which you would recommend and for what reason?

(A) The vaccine containing killed hepatitis A virus is best because it induces the most antibody.

(B) The vaccine containing killed hepatitis A virus is best because it provides the most long-lived immunity.

(C) The serum globulin preparation containing antibodies against the virus is best because it provides immunity in the shortest time.

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