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Zoonoses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi transmitted from vertebrate animals or insects to or from humans. Ticks are one of the most important vectors of human infectious diseases in the world. Exposures or occupations that involve animal contact are risk factors for disease (Table 161-1). Recent travel, particularly in spring, summer, and early fall, or history of habitation in an underdeveloped country are additional risk factors. Zoonoses can occur at any time of the year, but in temperate climates, most zoonoses happen in the spring and summer. A patient with a zoonotic infection has signs and symptoms similar to many acute infections: fever, headache, myalgias, malaise, and weakness (Table 161-2).

TABLE 161-1Risk Factors for Zoonotic Infection
TABLE 161-2Common Systemic Zoonotic Infections

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