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Which of the following conditions are reasonable explanations for a patient's decreased static pulmonary compliance (the pressure-volume curve for the lungs shifted to the right)?

a. Decreased functional pulmonary surfactant

b. Fibrosis of the lungs

c. Surgical removal of one lobe

d. Pulmonary vascular congestion

e. All of the above

The correct answer is e.

All of the conditions lead to decreased compliance. Surgical removal of one lobe would decrease pulmonary compliance because the lobes of the lung are in parallel and compliances in parallel add directly.

Which of the following tend to increase airways resistance?

a. Stimulation of the parasympathetic postganglionic fibers innervating the bronchial and bronchiolar smooth muscle

b. Low lung volumes

c. Forced expirations

d. Breathing through the nose instead of the mouth

e. All of the above

The correct answer is e.

Which of the following statements concerning alveolar pressure is/are correct?

a. Alveolar pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure during a normal negative-pressure inspiration.

b. Alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure during a forced expiration.

c. Alveolar pressure equals the sum of the intrapleural pressure plus the alveolar elastic recoil pressure.

d. Alveolar pressure equals atmospheric pressure at the end of a normal tidal expiration.

e. All of the above.

The correct answer is e.

Which of the following statements concerning small airways is/are true?

a. The total resistance to airflow decreases with successive generations of airways because there are increasing numbers of units arranged in parallel.

b. The linear velocity of airflow decreases as the airways decrease in size because their total cross-sectional area increases.

c. Alveolar elastic recoil plays an important role in determining the resistance to airflow in small airways because alveolar septal traction helps to oppose dynamic compression.

d. Airflow in small airways is usually laminar.

e. All of the above.

The ...

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