Antiseptics are applied to living tissue to kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects to destroy pathogenic microorganisms. Despite the lack of rigorous evidence that they prevent infection, they are used widely in households, the food industry, and hospitals. This chapter describes toxicity caused by chlorhexidine, glutaraldehyde, hexylresorcinol, hydrogen peroxide, ichthammol, and potassium permanganate. These agents are often used as dilute solutions that usually cause little or no toxicity. Hexylresorcinol is commonly found in throat lozenges. Ichthammol is found in many topical salves. Descriptions of the toxicity of other antiseptics and disinfectants appear elsewhere in this book, including the following: hypochlorite, iodine, isopropyl alcohol, mercurochrome, phenol, and pine oil (Hydrocarbons).