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ABI ankle-brachial index
ACC American College of Cardiology
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
ACh acetylcholine
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone
AFib or AF atrial fibrillation
AFl atrial flutter
AHA American Heart Association
AICD automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator
AL amyloidosis
ANA antinuclear antibody (ANA) test
ANP atrial natriuretic peptide
APD action potential duration
APTT Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
AR aortic regurgitation
ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers
ARP absolute refractory period
ART antidromic reentrant tachycardia
ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
ARVD arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
AS aortic stenosis
ASDs atrial septal defects
AV atrioventricular
aVF augmented voltage left foot
aVL augmented voltage left arm
AVP arginine vasopressin
aVR augmented voltage right arm
AVR aortic valve replacement
AVNRTs atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias
AVRTs atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias
BAT baroreflex activation therapy
BNP B-type natriuretic peptide
bpm beats per minute
BSA body surface area
BVH biventricular hypertrophy
CABG coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
CADs cardiovascular diseases
cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CCBs calcium channel blockers
CCF congestive cardiac failure
cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate
CHB complete heart block
CHD congenital heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CICR calcium-induced calcium release
CKD chronic kidney disease
CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging
CO cardiac output
CoA coarctation of the aorta
CPA conventional peripheral angiography
CPVT catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
CTA computed tomography angiography
CVA cerebrovascular accident
CVDs chronic venous disorders
CVI cavotricuspid isthmus
Cx circumflex (branch)
DADs delayed afterdepolarizations
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
DESs drug-eluting stents
DHPs dihydropyridines
DORV double outlet right ventricle
DP diastolic pressure
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG electrocardiography/electrocardiogram
EDP end-diastolic pressure
EDV end-diastolic volume
EF ejection fraction
ERP effective refractory period
ESC European Society of Cardiology
ESV end-systolic volume
ERP effective refractory period
GFR glomerular filtration rate
GSV great saphenous vein
HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HLHS hypoplastic left heart syndrome
HR heart rate
5HT 5-hydroxytryptamine
HTN hypertension
ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator
IHD ischemic heart disease
ICS intercostal space
IHD ischemic heart disease
INR international normalized ratio
IVC inferior vena cava
IVS interventricular septum
JET junctional ectopic tachycardia
JVD jugular vein distention
JVP jugular venous pressure
LA left atrium
LAA left atrial appendage
LAD left anterior descending (branch)
LAP left atrial pressure
LBBB left bundle branch block
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LMWHs low molecular weight heparins
LTRI lower respiratory tract infection
LV left ventricle
LVAD left ventricular assist device
LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
LVES left ventricular end-systolic
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
LVOT left ventricular outflow tract
MAHA microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
MAP mean arterial pressure
MAT multifocal atrial tachycardia
MI myocardial infarction
MIP maximum intensity projection
MMVD mixed mitral valve disease
MR mitral regurgitation
MRA magnetic resonance angiogram
MV mitral valve
MVP mitral valve prolapse
MYBPC3C myosin-binding protein C
MYH7 myosin heavy chain 7
NCX sodium-calcium exchanger
NDF net driving force
NDHPs non-dihydropyridines
NPY neuropeptide Y
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSTEMI non-ST elevation myocardial infarction
ORT orthodromic reentrant tachycardia
PACs premature atrial contractions
PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension
PCI percutaneous coronary intervention
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PDE-3 phosphodiesterase isozyme 3
PE pulmonary thromboembolism
PET positron emission tomography
PETN pentaerythritol tetranitrate
PFO patent foramen ovale
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PRU peripheral resistance unit
PS pulmonary stenosis
PSV peak systolic velocity
PSVT paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
PTA percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
PTRA percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty
PVCs premature ventricular contractions
PVE prosthetic valve endocarditis
PVR pulmonary vascular resistance
RA right atrium
RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RCA right coronary artery
RCM restrictive cardiomyopathy
RFA radiofrequency ablation
RHC right heart catheterization
RPLS reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome
RRP relative refractory period
RV right ventricle
RVH right ventricular hypertrophy
RVOT right ventricular outflow tract
SA sinoatrial
SACT sinoatrial conduction time
SAM systolic anterior motion
SBP systolic blood pressure
SCD sudden cardiac death
SERCA sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase
SJS Stevens-Johnson syndrome
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
SNP supranormal period
SNS sympathetic nervous system
SOB shortness of breath
SP systolic pressure
SR sarcoplasmic reticulum
STEMI ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
SV stroke volume
SVC superior vena cava
SVR systemic vascular resistance
SVTs supraventricular tachycardias
TA tricuspid atresia
TAPVC total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
TAPVR/D total anomalous pulmonary venous return/drainage
TAVR transcatheter aortic valve replacement
TCPC total cavopulmonary connection
TEE transesophageal echocardiogram
TEN toxic epidermal necrolysis
TIMI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction
TnC troponin C
TnI troponin I
TnT troponin T
TNNT2 cardiac troponin T
ToF tetralogy of Fallot
TPR total peripheral resistance
TR tricuspid regurgitation
TTE transthoracic echocardiograms
TV tricuspid valve
TXA2 thromboxane
UFH unfractionated heparin
V1A vasopressin type 1A (V1A) receptor
V2 vasopressin type 2 (V2) receptor
VFib or VF ventricular fibrillation
VSDs ventricular septal defects
VT ventricular tachycardia
VTE venous thromboembolism
VVs varicose veins
vWF von Willebrand factor
WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

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