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ABCC8 ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 8
ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ADA American Diabetes Association
ADH Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
AGE Advanced glycation end product
AGPAT 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2
AKT/PKB AKR mouse tumor 8 kinase/protein kinase B
AIRE Autoimmune regulator
ALT Alanine aminotransferase
AMPK Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase
APS1 Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1
ATF6 Activating transcription factor 6
BMI Body mass index
cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CCK Cholecystokinin
CEL Carboxyl-ester lipase
cGMP Cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate
CIDEC Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C
CSII Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion


Contraction stress test


Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4

DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
DIDMOAD Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness (Wolfram syndrome)
DPP Diabetes Prevention Program
DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4
DPT-1 Diabetes Prevention Trial-1
EIF2AK3 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 3
ER Endoplasmic reticulum
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FFA Free fatty acid
FHR Fetal heart rate
Foxo1 Forkhead box, subfamily O, member 1
FOXP3 Forkhead box, subfamily P, member 3
GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid
GAD Glutamic acid decarboxylase
GCK Glucokinase
GH Growth hormone
GHb Glycohemoglobin
GHSR Growth hormone-secretagogue receptor
GI Glycemic index
GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
GLIS3 Glioma-associated oncogene homolog—similar 3
GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1
GLP-2 Glucagon-like peptide-2
GLUT Glucose transporter
GPCR G protein–coupled receptor
GRPP Glicentin-related polypeptide
GWAS Genome-wide association study
HDL High-density lipoprotein
HLA Human leukocyte antigen
HNF Hepatocyte nuclear factor
hPL Human placental lactogen
IA2 Insulinoma antigen 2
IAA Insulin autoantibody
IAPP Islet amyloid polypeptide
ICA Islet cell antibody
IFG Impaired fasting glucose
IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1
IGT Impaired glucose tolerance
IL-6 Interleukin-6
INS Insulin
IP3 Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate
IPEX Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy, X-linked
IPF-1 Insulin promoter factor-1
IRE1 Inositol-requiring enzyme 1
IRS Insulin receptor substrate
ISL1 Islet transcription factor 1
IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction
KPD Ketosis-prone diabetes
KCNJ11 Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11
Kir6.2 Potassium channel, inwardly-rectifying 6.2
LADA Latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood
LKB1 Liver kinase B1
LDL Low-density lipoprotein
MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase
MODY Maturity-onset diabetes of the young
MHC Major histocompatibility complex
mTOR Mammalian target of rapamycin
NeuroD1 Neural differentiation factor 1
Neurog3 Neural genesis factor 3
NIH National Institutes of Health
NPH Neutral protamine hagedorn
NST Nonstress test
PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
PAX4 Paired homeobox 4


Proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin


Programmed death 1


Programmed death ligand 1

PDE5 Phosphodiesterase type 5
PDX1 Pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1
PERK Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase
PGC1α PPAR gamma coactivator-1α
PNDM Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
POEMS Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes
PP Pancreatic polypeptide
PPAR Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
PTF1A Pancreatic transcription factor 1α
PTP1b Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
RFX6 Regulatory factor X-6
RXR 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor
SCL19A2 Solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 2
SOCS Suppressor of cytokine signaling
SREBP1c Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c
SSTR Somatostatin receptor
SUR1 Sulfonylurea receptor 1
TCF7L2 Transcription factor 7-like 2
TGF-β Transforming growth factor-β
TNDM Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

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