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Chapter 24. Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas & Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism

A 48-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus injects himself with insulin. Insulin increases the entry of glucose into what tissues?

A. Renal tubular cells

B. Mucosa of the small intestine

C. Skeletal muscle

D. All of the above

The correct answer is D. Insulin causes glucose uptake in most tissues via GLUT-4 transporter, with the exceptions of liver and brain. In the kidney, the SGLT transporters are responsible for glucose uptake in tubules.

A meal rich in proteins containing the amino acids that stimulate insulin secretion but low in carbohydrates does not cause hypoglycemia because

A. the meal causes a compensatory increase in T4 secretion.

B. cortisol in the circulation prevents glucose from entering muscle.

C. glucagon secretion is also stimulated by the meal.

D. the amino acids in the meal are promptly converted to glucose.

E. insulin does not bind to insulin receptors if the plasma concentration of amino acids is elevated.

The correct answer is C. A high-protein meal increases both insulin and glucagon so that blood sugar remains stable.

A 20-year-old man with known type 1 DM visits his physician because he was feeling unwell. On physical examination, he was found have deep, rapid respirations, and he was immediately sent to the ED. What abnormality did the physician correctly identify from the physical symptoms?

A. Metabolic alkalosis

B. Metabolic acidosis

C. Pulmonary congestion

D. Hypercapnia

E. Hypoxia

The correct answer is B. The man has diabetic ketoacidosis. The increased respiratory rate an attempt to blow off the CO2 that was associated with elevated glucose and acidosis.

A diabetic checks his blood glucose before and after exercise and find a significant reduction in the glucose levels. What type of cells in the body mostly responsible for this responsible and what cell membrane glucose transporter do they express?

A. Muscle; GLUT-2

B. Liver; GLUT-2

C. Muscle; GLUT-4

D. Liver; ...

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