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Chapter 22. Reproductive Development & Function of the Female Reproductive System

A 29-year-old woman takes a home pregnancy test 8 weeks after her last menstrual period. The test is positive that she is pregnant. What hormone in the urine is the test measuring?

A. Estradiol

B. Progesterone

C. Luteinizing hormone

D. Human chorionic gonadotropin

The correct answer is D. HCG is the nutrient produced by syncytiotrophoblasts to maintain the early blastocyst and downregulates GnRH release. Estradiol levels are beginning to increase but would also do so during the early follicular phase, so can’t be used as a pregnancy test. LH is only elevated prior to ovulation and is decreased during pregnancy due to negative feedback on GnRH.

A 28-year-old woman comes to see her physician with symptoms of weight gain and nausea. The physician diagnoses her as being at 24 weeks gestation. Her circulating estradiol is elevated due to its production by the placenta. Estradiol cannot be synthesized by the fetal adrenal gland due to its inability to produce what steroid hormone? The fetus is not capable of synthesizing what steroid hormone?

A. Progesterone

B. Pregnenolone


D. Cholesterol

The correct answer is A. Fetal adrenal is not capable of converting pregnenolone to progesterone. DHEAS is produced in the fetal adrenal by conversion of pregnenolone sulfate. Cholesterol is not a steroid but is converted to pregnenolone sulfate in the fetal adrenal gland.

A 35-year-old woman takes a home pregnancy test 4 weeks after her last menstrual period and the test is positive. At this time immediately following fertilization and early after implantation into the endometrium, nutrition of the blastocyst is due to what structure?

A. Placenta

B. Decidua

C. Thecal cells

D. Corpus luteum

The correct answer is D. Immediately following implantation of the blastocyst, there is no placenta developed yet. Similarly, there is no decidua developed yet. Thecal cells are on the outside of the follicle and remain there following ovulation. The corpus luteum is maintained at first by progesterone and then later by human chorionic gonadotropin.

A 30-year-old woman wants to go back to work 3 weeks after delivery of her daughter. She is able to do this because her mother-in-law ...

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