Anemias associated with normocytic and normochromic red cells and an inappropriately low reticulocyte response (reticulocyte index <2–2.5) are hypoproliferative anemias. This category includes early iron deficiency (before hypochromic microcytic red cells develop), acute and chronic inflammation (including many malignancies), renal disease, hypometabolic states such as protein malnutrition and endocrine deficiencies, and anemias from marrow damage. Marrow damage states are discussed in Chap. 98.
Hypoproliferative anemias are the most common anemias, and in the clinic, iron deficiency anemia is the most common of these followed by the anemia of inflammation. The anemia of inflammation, similar to iron deficiency, is related in part to abnormal iron metabolism. The anemias associated with renal disease, inflammation, cancer, and hypometabolic states are characterized by a suboptimal erythropoietin response to the anemia.
Iron is a critical element in the function of all cells, although the amount of iron required by individual tissues varies during development. At the same time, the body must protect itself from free iron, which is highly toxic in that it participates in chemical reactions that generate free radicals such as singlet O2 or OH–. Consequently, elaborate mechanisms have evolved that allow iron to be made available for physiologic functions while at the same time conserving this element and handling it in such a way that toxicity is avoided.
The major role of iron in mammals is to carry O2 as part of hemoglobin. O2 is also bound by myoglobin in muscle. Iron is a critical element in iron-containing enzymes, including the cytochrome system in mitochondria. Iron distribution in the body is shown in Table 93-1. Without iron, cells lose their capacity for electron transport and energy metabolism. In erythroid cells, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired, resulting in anemia and reduced O2 delivery to tissue.
Table Graphic Jump Location TABLE 93-1Body Iron Distribution ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 93-1 Body Iron Distribution
| ||Iron Content, mg |
| ||Adult Male, 80 kg ||Adult Female, 60 kg |
|Hemoglobin ||2500 ||1700 |
|Myoglobin/enzymes ||500 ||300 |
|Transferrin iron ||3 ||3 |
|Iron stores ||600–1000 ||0–300 |
THE IRON CYCLE IN HUMANS
Figure 93-1 outlines the major pathways of internal iron exchange in humans. Iron absorbed from the diet or released from stores circulates in the plasma bound to transferrin, the iron transport protein. Transferrin is a bilobed glycoprotein with two iron-binding sites. Transferrin that carries iron exists in two forms—monoferric (one iron atom) or diferric (two iron atoms). The turnover (half-clearance time) of transferrin-bound iron is very rapid—typically 60–90 min. Because almost all of the iron transported by transferrin is delivered to the erythroid marrow, the clearance time of transferrin-bound iron from the circulation is affected most by the plasma iron level and the erythroid marrow activity. When erythropoiesis is markedly stimulated, ...