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PRINCIPLES OF BACTERIAL VACCINES

Bacterial diseases can be prevented by using immunizations that induce either active or passive immunity. Active immunity is induced by vaccines prepared from bacteria or their products. This chapter presents a summary of the types of vaccines (Table 12–1); detailed information regarding each vaccine is located in the chapters on the specific organisms. Passive immunity is provided by the administration of preformed antibody in preparations called immune globulins. The immune globulins useful against bacterial diseases are described later. Passive–active immunity involves giving both immune globulins to provide immediate protection and a vaccine to provide long-term protection. This approach is described later in the section on tetanus antitoxin.

TABLE 12–1Current Bacterial Vaccines

Active Immunity

Bacterial vaccines are composed of capsular polysaccharides, inactivated protein exotoxins (toxoids), killed bacteria, or live, attenuated bacteria. The available bacterial vaccines and their indications are described next. Table 12–2 lists the bacterial (and viral) vaccines recommended for children from 0 to 6 years of age as of 2011. Advice regarding vaccines for travelers can be found at the Web site for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: www.cdc.gov/travel.

TABLE 12–2Vaccines Recommended for Children Age 0–6 Years1

Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines

  1. Both versions of the vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae contain the capsular polysaccharide of the bacteria as the immunogen. One version contains the capsular polysaccharide of the 23 most prevalent serotypes. It is recommended for persons older than 60 years of age and adult patients of any age with such chronic diseases as ...

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