Which of the following statements about chlamydial antigens is correct?
(A) Chlamydiae have shared group or genus-specific antigens.
(B) There is no cross-reaction between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae antigens.
(C) All five serovars of Chlamydia pneumoniae cross-react with Chlamydia psittaci.
(D) One serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis causes eye infections, and the second serovar causes genital infections.
The following are part of the control of Chlamydia psittaci and psittacosis in birds except
(A) Quarantine of psittacine birds imported into the United States
(B) Only allowing sale of psittacine birds hatched in the United States
(C) Testing of birds for C psittaci infection
(D) Controlling the shipment of psittacine birds
(E) Putting tetracycline in the feed of psittacine birds
All of the following statements about perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections are correct except
(A) Between 15% and 40% of infants born to infected women develop inclusion conjunctivitis.
(B) Between 10% and 20% of infants born to infected women develop infant pneumonia.
(C) The incubation period for Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion conjunctivitis is 1–2 days.
(D) The incubation period for infant pneumonia is typically 2–12 weeks.
(E) Ocular prophylaxis with erythromycin or tetracycline for neonatal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is generally not effective against neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
(F) Infant pneumonia caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often presents with a staccato cough.
An adolescent girl came to the clinic because of a new and unusual vaginal discharge. She had recently become sexually active and had two new partners during the previous month. On pelvic examination, a purulent discharge was seen at the opening of her endocervical canal. Which of the following statements about this patient is most correct?
(A) A serologic test for syphilis is not indicated because her symptoms are not those of syphilis.
(B) A Gram stain of her endocervical specimen would show Chlamydia trachomatis inside polymorphonuclear cells.
(C) The differential diagnosis includes infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or both.
(D) The endocervical specimen should be analyzed for herpes simplex.
(E) Initial treatment is with ampicillin.
The following statements about trachoma are correct except
(A) It follows chronic or recurrent eye infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.
(B) Millions of people worldwide have trachoma.
(C) Trachoma is readily prevented by a chlamydial vaccine.
(D) Progression of trachoma can be slowed by intermittent treatment with azithromycin.
(E) Trachoma involves scarring of the conjunctiva, eyelid deformities, and eyelash injury to the cornea.
Elimination of blinding trachoma involves all of the following except
(A) Periodic administration of azithromycin
(B) Face washing and hygiene
(C) Periodic culture screening of conjunctiva swab specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis
(D) Environment improvements to sewage systems to decrease the number of flies
(E) Surgery on deformed eyelids
Which one of the following statements about Chlamydia pneumoniae is most correct?
(A) Transmission from person to person is by the airborne route.
(B) It makes glycogen-rich inclusions that stain with iodine.
(C) There are multiple serovars, including three that cause a systemic illness.
(D) They are resistant to macrolides.
(E) The reservoir is house cats.
The serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis generally can be divided into groups representing their clinical infections and anatomic site infected. Which of the following statements about the C trachomatis serovars is most correct?
(A) There is no immunologic cross-reaction between Chlamydia trachomatis serovars A, B, Ba, and D and the Chlamydia pneumoniae serovar.
(B) Serovars L1, L2, and L3 are associated with lymphogranuloma venereum.
(C) The same Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are associated with blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections.
(D) The antibody titer rise seen beginning around 6–8 years follows infections with Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D–K.
In the United States, it has long been known that the positive seroprevalence for Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases greatly during the primary school years (ages 6–10 years). A likely reason for this is
(A) Frequent adenovirus infections
(B) Increased incidence of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis
(C) Cross-reactive antibodies with M protein of group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes)
(D) Children often have psittacosis
(E) Frequent infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae
All of the following statements about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) are correct except
(A) Chronic LGV proctitis can lead to rectal strictures and fistula formation.
(B) The disease is more common in northern latitudes.
(C) There may be marked systemic symptoms, including fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, and meningismus.
(D) Chronic inflammation with LGV can lead to lymphatic obstruction.
(E) Inguinal lymph nodes may become enlarged and matted, draining pus through the skin.
(F) A few days or weeks after exposure, the disease manifests itself as a genital papule or vesicle.
Which of the following methods are considered the diagnostic tests of choice for urogenital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis?
(A) Serology using complement fixation
(B) Cell culture using cycloheximide containing McCoy cells
(C) Direct fluorescent antibody testing on urethral and cervical specimens
(D) Nucleic acid amplification methods
(E) Enzyme immunoassays performed on genital tract specimens
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are currently available in the United States for diagnosing chlamydial infections are approved for testing all of the following specimens except
(A) Self-collected vaginal swabs in women
(B) First void urine samples obtained from men
(C) Rectal swabs obtained from children 12 years of age or younger
(D) Urethral swab samples obtained from adult men
(E) Cervical swab samples obtained from adolescent girls
Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia most resembles infection caused which of the following organisms?
(A) Streptococcus pneumoniae
(B) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
(C) Haemophilus influenzae
(D) Chlamydia trachomatis
Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn
(A) Is a mucopurulent conjunctivitis that occurs 7–12 days after delivery
(B) Is caused by Chlamydia psittaci
(C) Is a result of exposure to pet birds in the home
(D) Is treated with systemic penicillin because it may progress to pneumonia
The diagnostic method of choice for Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in the newborn is
(A) A nucleic acid amplification test that targets the ompA gene
(B) Culture of respiratory secretions in McCoy cells or other cell lines
(C) Enzyme immunoassay testing of respiratory secretions
(D) IgG antibodies detected by complement fixation