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Chapter 14. Quantitative Systematic Review

Is it appropriate to summarize available evidence when study designs, populations, treatments or interventions, exposures, and outcomes of the studies included in the systematic review are not similar?

A. No

B. Yes, if the heterogeneity test is not significant

C. Yes, independently of the heterogeneity test is not significant

D. It depends on the number of studies considered in the meta-analysis

What should be considered in determining the search strategy for a meta-analysis?

A. The time that it will take to read the manuscripts identified from the search

B. The study hypothesis and number of possible studies that the search will return

C. The study hypothesis, research questions, and the database in which the search is to be conducted

D. The research questions and the number of possible studies that the search will return

Can a meta-analysis be limited to non-RCTs studies only?

A. Yes, if published non-RCTs have similar methods, sound findings and report adjusted results, and all published RCTs evidence suffer from evident methodologic problems or their study designs and method vary significantly

B. No

C. It depends on the number of studies included in the meta-analysis

D. Yes, independently of the non-RCTs’ methods and whether RCT evidence is available

Why it is critical to assess the risk of bias of the evidence considered in a meta-analysis?

A. Study analysis will be easier

B. Studies suffering from bias are difficult to understand

C. The sensitivity analysis will be easier

D. To ensure that the meta-analysis has good internal and external validity

Dr. F. is executing a meta-analysis, and he is uncertain on whether he can use a fixed-effect model to estimate the overall effect. In which of the following scenarios is it appropriate to use a fixed-effect model?

A. The intervention effect is similar (in both magnitude and direction) across studies, but the study designs and methods are very different

B. The intervention effect is similar (in both magnitude and direction) ...

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