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Chapter 13. Assessing Evidence

All of the following would be considered providing low quality of evidence EXCEPT

A. RCTs with major limitations.

B. case reports of clinical observations.

C. physiological measurement studies.

D. well-designed, well-executed observational studies.

E. none of the above.

Which of the following types of studies typically is considered to provide the strongest quality of evidence?

A. Well-designed, well-executed nonrandomized intervention studies

B. Well-designed, well-executed randomized intervention studies

C. Well-designed, well-executed observational studies

D. Well-designed, well-executed case series

E. Well-designed, well-executed physiological measurement studies

Which of the following associations is an example in which the results of observational studies and RCTs reached differing conclusions?

A. Cholesterol reduction and lowered risk of recurrent MIs

B. Hypertension control and reduced risk of stroke

C. Hormone replacement therapy and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

D. Aspirin use and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

E. Blood glucose control and reduced risk of complications of diabetes mellitus

The IOM’s “best practice” standards for developing evidence-based clinical guidelines include all of the following EXCEPT

A. use of a systematic review.

B. consideration of patient subgroups and preferences.

C. a process to minimize biases.

D. ratings of the quality of the evidence.

E. none of the above.

A study with highly restrictive inclusion criteria is likely to be limited with respect to

A. internal validity.

B. face validity.

C. ecologic validity.

D. external validity.

E. construct validity.

Which of the following study designs is LEAST susceptible to the potential distortion from confounding?

A. An RCT

B. A correlation (ecologic) study

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