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Chapter 11. Comparative Effectiveness

Which of the following is NOT an example of comparative effectiveness research?

A. An observational study using propensity matching

B. A meta-analysis

C. An efficacy-based randomized control trial

D. A decision tree–based analytical study

What is one of the weaknesses related to meta-analyses?

A. They combine information from across multiple studies

B. Most of the data available will be efficacy data, not data on effectiveness

C. Similar endpoints from multiple studies are used to generate a combined effect size

D. They are not well accepted

Which of these is NOT a strength of observational studies?

A. Their longitudinal nature or ability for researchers to follow patients over very long periods of time that are most often contiguous

B. Their ready availability at little expense

C. Their ability to control for selection bias with randomization of subjects

D. Their ability to answer research questions that cannot be answered with RCTs such as effects of changes in policy or clinical practice

A stochastic decision analysis model is

A. A statistical approaches used to analyzed data to identify patterns of relationships between variables and to test hypotheses.

B. Mathematical structures that are used to link evidence from multiple sources to predict outcomes such as effectiveness, costs, or cost effectiveness often over a long time period.

C. A method used to control selection bias.

D. A way to assess the efficacy of treatment effect in clinical trials.

Which of these is NOT a type of propensity score method?

A. Matching

B. Stratification

C. Weighting

D. Randomization

What is selection bias?

A. A systematic error that can affect the integrity of a study (internal validity), causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others in the study sample


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