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Chapter 3. Patterns of Occurrence

Which of the following attributes is NOT typically used to characterize who gets a disease?

A. Sex

B. HLA type

C. Race

D. Age

Persons born in the same year are referred to as

A. a birth cohort.

B. gestational peers.

C. conception cohort.

D. none of the above.

For a genetic disease, when persons from a high-risk country migrate to a low-risk country, we expect their risk of disease to

A. decrease.

B. increase.

C. remain unchanged.

D. vary based on age at migration.

For an environmentally determined disease, when persons migrate from a high-risk country to a low-risk country, we expect their risk of disease to

A. decrease.

B. increase.

C. remain unchanged.

D. be similar to their children’s risk.

In an ecologic study of cell phone use and incidence of brain cancer, the coefficient of determination is found to be 0.3. This suggests that

A. cell phone use accounts for most of the variation in risk of brain cancer.

B. cell phone use is a cause of brain cancer.

C. cell phone use has no association with risk of brain cancer.

D. cell phone use accounts for about a third of the variation in brain cancer risk.

In an ecologic study of dietary folate intake and risk of neural tube defects, the correlation coefficient was -0.86. This means that

A. high dietary folate intake is associated with a higher risk of neural tube defects.

B. high dietary folate intake is associated with a lower risk of neural tube defects.

C. there is no association between dietary folate intake and neural tube defects.

D. dietary folate intake causes neural tube defects.

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