Dyspnea, a subjective experience of uncomfortable breathing, is a symptom that often results from increased work of inhalation and exhalation. Assessment begins by determining the quality and intensity of the discomfort. Dyspnea typically results from cardiopulmonary problems that cause an increased drive to breathe, an increased work of breathing, and/or stimulation of specific receptors in the heart, lungs, or vasculature.
Respiratory System Dyspnea
Airway disease: Asthma and COPD are common causes of dyspnea associated with increased work of breathing. Bronchospasm can cause chest tightness and hyperventilation. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia can result from ventilation-perfusion mismatch.
Chest wall disorders: Chest wall stiffness (e.g., kyphoscoliosis) and neuromuscular weakness (e.g., myasthenia gravis) cause increased work of breathing.
Lung parenchymal disorders: Interstitial lung diseases (Chap. 143) cause reduced lung compliance and increased work of breathing. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch and pulmonary fibrosis may lead to hypoxemia. Stimulation of lung receptors can cause hyperventilation.
Cardiovascular System Dyspnea
Left heart disorders: Elevations of left-ventricular end-diastolic and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures lead to dyspnea related to stimulation of pulmonary receptors and hypoxemia from ventilation-perfusion mismatch.
Pulmonary vascular disorders: Pulmonary emboli, primary pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pulmonary vasculitis stimulate pulmonary receptors via increased pulmonary artery pressures. Hyperventilation and hypoxemia also may contribute to dyspnea.
Pericardial diseases: Constrictive pericarditis and pericardial tamponade cause increased intracardiac and pulmonary arterial pressures, leading to dyspnea.
Dyspnea with Normal Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems
Anemia can cause dyspnea, especially with exertion. Obesity is associated with dyspnea due to high cardiac output and impaired ventilatory function. Deconditioning may contribute as well.
APPROACH TO THE PATIENT Dyspnea (See Fig. 39-1)
History: Obtain description of discomfort, including the impact of position, infections, and environmental exposures. Orthopnea is commonly observed in congestive heart failure (CHF). Nocturnal dyspnea is seen in CHF and asthma. Intermittent dyspnea suggests myocardial ischemia, asthma, or pulmonary embolism.
Physical examination: Assess increased work of breathing indicated by accessory ventilatory muscle use. Determine if chest movement is symmetric. Use percussion (dullness or hyperresonance) and auscultation (decreased or adventitious breath sounds) to assess the lungs. Cardiac exam should note jugular venous distention, heart murmurs, and S3 or S4 gallops. Clubbing can relate to interstitial lung disease or lung cancer. To evaluate exertional dyspnea, reproduce the dyspnea with observation while assessing pulse oximetry.
Radiographic studies: Chest radiograph should be obtained as initial evaluation. Chest CT can be used subsequently to assess lung parenchyma (e.g., emphysema or interstitial lung disease) and pulmonary embolism.
Laboratory studies: ECG should be obtained; echocardiography can assess left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and valvular disease. Pulmonary function tests to consider include spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity. Methacholine challenge testing can assess for asthma in subjects with normal spirometry. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can determine whether pulmonary or cardiac disease limits exercise ...