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Section VI. Environmental Health

Oil

a. accounts for less than half of global energy consumption

b. consumption is exceeded by coal consumption

c. creates the largest carbon emissions of any fossil fuel

d. causes the largest emissions of air pollutants

a. Global oil consumption reached 88 million barrels per day in 2011, which accounts for 33.1% of global energy consumption.

Transportation

a. relies almost exclusively on oil

b. accounts for nearly 50% of US energy demand

c. produces 40% of US emissions of carbon dioxide

d. by automobiles is on the decline

a. Transportation, which relies almost exclusively on oil, accounts for nearly 30% of US energy demand and 20% of US emissions of carbon dioxide.

Dioxins

a. are suspected to be endocrine disruptors and carcinogens

b. are produced intentionally

c. are by-products of industrial processes

d. are excluded from international reduction efforts

c. Dioxins are not produced intentionally, but are by-products of incineration, combustion, chlorine-based bleaching, and other industrial processes. Dioxins are known human carcinogens and are well-established endocrine disruptors.

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

a. is a result of disrupted pituitary development

b. may include undescended testis but not ­hypospadias

c. is an early form of testicular cancer

d. has been associated with prenatal phthalate ­exposure

d. Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome, an entity first described in 2001 is a result of disrupted gonadal development during fetal life, resulting in poor semen quality and higher rates of undescended testis, hypospadias, and testicular cancer.

A disease cluster was the very first indication of the link between

a. DBCP and male infertility

b. vinyl chloride and liver cancer

c. diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans

d. inorganic mercury and neurodevelopmental ­toxicity

c. Although the DBCP and vinyl chloride cancer clusters ...

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