Few medical interventions of the past century can rival the effect that immunization has had on longevity, economic savings, and quality of life. Seventeen diseases are now preventable through vaccines routinely administered to children and adults in the United States (Table 148-1), and most vaccine-preventable diseases of childhood are at historically low levels (Table 148-2). Health care providers deliver the vast majority of vaccines in the United States in the course of providing routine health services and therefore play an integral role in the nation’s public health system.
Direct and Indirect Effects
Immunizations against specific infectious diseases protect individuals against infection and thereby prevent symptomatic illnesses. Specific vaccines may blunt the severity of clinical illness (e.g., rotavirus vaccines and severe gastroenteritis) or reduce complications (e.g., zoster vaccines and postherpetic neuralgia). Some immunizations also reduce transmission of infectious disease agents from immunized people to others, thereby reducing the impact of infection spread. This indirect impact is known as herd immunity. The level of immunization in a population that is required to achieve indirect protection of unimmunized people varies substantially with the specific vaccine.
TABLE 148-1Diseases Preventable with Vaccines Routinely Administered in the United States to Children and/or Adults |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf) TABLE 148-1Diseases Preventable with Vaccines Routinely Administered in the United States to Children and/or Adults
|Condition ||Target Population(s) for Routine Use |
|Pertussis ||Children, adolescents, adults |
|Diphtheria ||Children, adolescents, adults |
|Tetanus ||Children, adolescents, adults |
|Poliomyelitis ||Children |
|Measles ||Children |
|Mumps ||Children |
|Rubella, congenital rubella syndrome ||Children |
|Hepatitis B ||Children |
|Haemophilus influenzae type b infection ||Children |
|Hepatitis A ||Children |
|Influenza ||Children, adolescents, adults |
|Varicella ||Children |
|Invasive pneumococcal disease ||Children, older adults |
|Meningococcal disease ||Adolescents |
|Rotavirus infection ||Infants |
|Human papillomavirus infection, cervical and anogenital cancers ||Adolescents and young adults |
|Zoster ||Older adults |
Since childhood vaccines have become widely available in the United States, major declines in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases among both children and adults have become evident (Table 148-2). For example, vaccination of children <5 years of age against seven types of Streptococcus pneumoniae led to a >90% overall reduction in invasive disease caused by those types. A series of childhood vaccines targeting 13 vaccine-preventable diseases in a single birth cohort leads to prevention of 42,000 premature deaths and 20 million illnesses and saves nearly $70 billion (U.S.).
Control, Elimination, and Eradication of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
Immunization programs are associated with the goals of controlling, eliminating, or eradicating a disease. Control of a vaccine-preventable disease reduces poor illness outcomes and often limits the disruptive impacts associated with outbreaks of disease in communities, schools, and institutions. Control programs can also reduce absences from work for ill persons and for parents caring for sick children, decrease absences from school, and limit health care utilization associated with treatment visits.