Which one of the following is an attribute of the innate, rather than the adaptive (acquired), arm of our host defenses?
(A) Is highly specific in its response to bacteria
(B) Responds to viruses and fungi, but not bacteria
(C) Exhibits memory following exposure to bacteria
(D) Is part of our host defense against bacteria but not against fungi
(E) Is as effective the first time it is exposed to bacteria as it is subsequent times
Regarding antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity, which one of the following is the most accurate?
(A) Antibody-mediated immunity helps prevent graft rejection.
(B) Antibody-mediated immunity protects against anaphylactic shock.
(C) Antibody-mediated immunity protects against autoimmune diseases.
(D) Cell-mediated immunity neutralizes extracellular viruses.
(E) Cell-mediated immunity protects against fungal infections.
Which one of the following is most likely to induce an IgM antibody response without the participation of helper T cells?
(B) Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide
(C) Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid
(E) Toxic shock syndrome toxin
Regarding haptens, which one of the following is the most accurate?
(A) A hapten is the antigen-binding site in the hypervariable region of IgG.
(B) A hapten cannot induce antibody by itself but can do so when covalently bound to a carrier protein.
(C) A hapten can bind to the antigen receptor of CD4-positive T cells without being processed by macrophages.
(D) A hapten is defined by its ability to bind to the smaller of the two polypeptides that comprise the class I MHC proteins.
Certain components of our immune system are characterized by two attributes: being able (1) to respond specifically to microbes and (2) to exhibit memory of having responded to a particular microbe previously. Which one of the following has BOTH specificity and memory?