Body temperature is controlled by the hypothalamus. Neurons in both the preoptic anterior hypothalamus and the posterior hypothalamus receive two kinds of signals: one from peripheral nerves that transmit information from warmth/cold receptors in the skin and the other from the temperature of the blood bathing the region. These two types of signals are integrated by the thermoregulatory center of the hypothalamus to maintain normal temperature. In a neutral temperature environment, the human metabolic rate produces more heat than is necessary to maintain the core body temperature in the range of 36.5–37.5°C (97.7–99.5°F).
A normal body temperature is ordinarily maintained despite environmental variations because the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center balances the excess heat production derived from metabolic activity in muscle and the liver with heat dissipation from the skin and lungs. According to studies of healthy individuals 18–40 years of age, the mean oral temperature is 36.8° ± 0.4°C (98.2° ± 0.7°F), with low levels at 6 a.m. and higher levels at 4–6 p.m. The maximal normal oral temperature is 37.2°C (98.9°F) at 6 a.m. and 37.7°C (99.9°F) at 4 p.m.; these values define the 99th percentile for healthy individuals. In light of these studies, an a.m. temperature of >37.2°C (>98.9°F) or a p.m. temperature of >37.7°C (>99.9°F) would define a fever. The normal daily temperature variation is typically 0.5°C (0.9°F). However, in some individuals recovering from a febrile illness, this daily variation can be as great as 1.0°C. During a febrile illness, the diurnal variation is usually maintained, but at higher, febrile levels. The daily temperature variation appears to be fixed in early childhood; in contrast, elderly individuals can exhibit a reduced ability to develop fever, with only a modest fever even in severe infections.
Rectal temperatures are generally 0.4°C (0.7°F) higher than oral readings. The lower oral readings are probably attributable to mouth breathing, which is a factor in patients with respiratory infections and rapid breathing. Lower-esophageal temperatures closely reflect core temperature. Tympanic membrane thermometers measure radiant heat from the tympanic membrane and nearby ear canal and display that absolute value (unadjusted mode) or a value automatically calculated from the absolute reading on the basis of nomograms relating the radiant temperature measured to actual core temperatures obtained in clinical studies (adjusted mode). These measurements, although convenient, may be more variable than directly determined oral or rectal values. Studies in adults show that readings are lower with unadjusted-mode than with adjusted-mode tympanic membrane thermometers and that unadjusted-mode tympanic membrane values are 0.8°C (1.6°F) lower than rectal temperatures.
In women who menstruate, the a.m. temperature is generally lower in the 2 weeks before ovulation; it then rises by ∼0.6°C (1°F) with ovulation and remains at that level until menses occur. Body temperature can be elevated in the postprandial state. Pregnancy and endocrinologic dysfunction also affect body temperature.
FEVER VERSUS HYPERTHERMIA