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Contributors

Editor

Kent R. Olson, MD, FACEP, FACMT, FAACT
Clinical Professor of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division

Associate Editors

Ilene B. Anderson, PharmD
Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division

Neal L. Benowitz, MD
Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, San Francisco; Associate Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division

Paul D. Blanc, MD, MSPH
Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

Richard F. Clark, MD, FACEP
Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Diego; Director, Division of Medical Toxicology and Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Diego Division

Thomas E. Kearney, PharmD, ABAT
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Managing Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division

Susan Y. Kim-Katz, PharmD
Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division

Alan H. B. Wu, PhD
Professor of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Chief, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, San Francisco General Hospital

Contributors

Timothy E. Albertson, MD, MPH, PhD
Professor of Medicine, Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California Medical Center, Davis; Medical Director, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
tealbertson@ucdavis.edu
Section II: Amphetamines; Barbiturates; Chloroquine; Dextromethorphan; Opiates and Opioids

Judith A. Alsop, PharmD, DABAT
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Clinical Professor of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
jalsop@calpoison.org
Section II: Plants; Section III: Metoclopramide; Ondansetron; Potassium; Propofol

Ilene B. Anderson, PharmD
Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
iba@calpoison.org
Section II: Botulism; Camphor and Other Essential Oils; Dextromethrophan; Ethylene Glycol and Other Glycols; Lomotil and Other Antidiarrheals; Methanol; Warfarin and Related Rodenticides

Patil Armenian, MD
Medical Toxicology Fellow, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division, University of California, San Francisco
Section II: Phencyclidine and Ketamine

John Balmes, MD
Professor, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Chief, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital
jbalmes@medsfgh.ucsf.edu
Section II: Asbestos; Formaldehyde; Gases, Irritant; Molds; Phosgene; Sulfur Dioxide

Neal L. Benowitz, MD
Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, San Francisco; Associate Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
nbenowitz@medsfgh.ucsf.edu
Section II: Anesthetics, Local; Antiarrhythmic Drugs; Antidepressants, General (Noncyclic); Antidepressants, Tricyclic; Beta-Adrenergic Blockers; Cardiac Glycosides; Cocaine; Ergot Derivatives; Lithium; Marijuana; Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors; Nicotine; Nitrates and Nitrites; Nitroprusside; Phencyclidine (PCP) and Ketamine; Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine and Other Decongestants; Quinidine and Other Type IA Antiarrhythmic Drugs; Quinine; Vacor (PNU); Section III: Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine

Kathleen Birnbaum, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
kbirnbaum@calpoison.org
Section III: Insulin; Leucovorin Calcium

Paul D. Blanc, MD, MSPH
Professor of Medicine, and Chief, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Paul.blanc@ucsf.edu
Section II: Carbon Disulfide; Cyanide; Isocyanates; Manganese; Metal Fume Fever; Methemoglobinemia; Nitrogen Oxides; Section IV: Evaluation of the Patient with Occupational Chemical Exposure; The Toxic Hazards of Industrial and Occupational Chemicals

Stephen C. Born, MD, MPH
Associate Clinical Professor, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
sborn@sfghoem.ucsf.edu
Section II: Dioxins, Ethylene Oxide

Alan Buchwald, MD
Consultant in Medical Toxicology and Medical Director, Occupational Health Center, Dominican Santa Cruz Hospital, Santa Cruz
albuchwald955@pol.net
Section II: Copper

Chris Camilleri, DO
Volunteer Clinical Faculty, Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Shingle Springs
Section II: Benzene

F. Lee Cantrell, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Diego and San Francisco; Interim Director, California Poison Control System, San Diego Division
fcantrel@ucsd.edu
Section II: Thyroid Hormone; Section III: Cyproheptadine; Deferoxamine; Folic Acid; Inamrinone (formerly Amrinone)

Shaun D. Carstairs, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, San Diego
Section II: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Trichloroethane, Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene

Richard F. Clark, MD
Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Diego; Director, Division of Medical Toxicology, University of California Medical Center, San Diego; Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Diego Division
rfclark@ucsd.edu
Section II: Hymenoptera; Lionfish and Other Scorpaenoidea; Scorpions; Snakebite; Section III: Antivenom, Crotalinae (Rattlesnake); Antivenom, Latrodectus Mactans (Black Widow Spider); Antivenom, Micrurus Fulvius (Coral Snake)

G. Patrick Daubert, MD, FACEP
Associate Medical Director, Sacramento Division, California Poison Control System; Division of Emergency Medicine, Kaiser Permanente, South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento
Section II: Aconite

Delia A. Dempsey, MD, MS
Assistant Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Assistant Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
ddempsey@medsfgh.ucsf.edu
Section I: Special Considerations in Pediatric Patients; Section II: Bromides; Methyl Bromide; Pentachlorophenol and Dinitrophenol

Charlene Doss
School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
Section II: Antiseptics

Jo Ellen Dyer, PharmD
Clinical Professor, Department of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
jdyer@calpoison.org
Section I: Special Considerations in the Evaluation of Drug-Facilitated Assault; Section II: Azide, Sodium; Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

Gary W. Everson, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
geverson@calpoison.org
Section II: Phenol and Related Compounds; Section III: Mannitol

Jeffrey Fay, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
jfay@calpoison.org
Section II: Vasodilators

Thomas J. Ferguson, MD, PhD
Associate Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis; Medical Director, Cowell Student Health Center, University of California, Davis
tjferguson@ucdavis.edu
Section II: Chromium; Thallium

Frederick Fung, MD, MS
Clinical Professor of Occupational Medicine, University of California, Irvine; Medical Director, Occupational Medicine Department and Toxicology Services, Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego
fred.fung@sharp.com
Section II: Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform; Radiation

Mark J. Galbo, MS
Environmental Toxicologist, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Poison Information Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
mjgalbo@calpoison.org
Section II: Naphthalene and Paradichlorobenzene; Warfare Agents—Chemical

Fabian Garza, PharmD
School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
fgarza@calpoison.org
Section III: Methylene Blue

Richard J. Geller, MD, MPH
Associate Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Medical Director, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
Section II: Disulfiram; Paraquat and Diquat; Selenium; Section III: Atropine and Glycopyrrolate; Pralidoxime (2-PAM) & Other Oximes

Joanne M. Goralka
Toxicology Management Specialist, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, Sacramento
Section III: Ondansetron; Propofol

Christine A. Haller, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division; San Francisco General Hospital
dchaller@worldnet.att.net
Section II: Herbal and Alternative Products

Sandra Hayashi, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
shayashi@calpoison.org
Section II: Angiotensin Blockers and ACE Inhibitors; Section III: Prussian Blue

Patricia Hess Hiatt, BS
Administrative Operations Manager, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
phiatt@calpoison.org
Section IV: The Toxic Hazards of Industrial and Occupational Chemicals

Raymond Ho, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
rho@calpoison.org
Section III: Botulinum Antitoxin; Flumazenil; Thiosulfate, Sodium

Yao-Min Hung, MD, MPH
Attending Physician, Department of Internal Medicine, Long Cyuan Veterans Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Section II: Oxalic Acid

Leslie M. Israel, DO, MPH
Associate Clinical Professor of Occupational Medicine, University of California, Irvine
lisrael@uci.edu
Section II: Cadmium

Sam Jackson, MD, MBA
Global Safety Officer, Amgen Global Safety, Biotechnology Company, San Francisco, California
Section III: Neuromuscular Blockers

Thanjira Jiranantakan, MD
Medical Toxicology Fellow, California Poison Control System, University of California, San Francisco, USA; Instructor, Preventive and Social Medicine Department, Siriraj Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand
Section II: Ethylene Glycol and Other Glycols; Methotrexate; Lithium

Thomas E. Kearney, PharmD, DABAT
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Managing Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
pcctk@calpoison.org
Section II: Carbamazepine and Oxcarbazepine; Valproic Acid; Section III: Introduction; Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine [NAC]); Benzodiazepines (Diazepam, Lorazepam, and Midazolam); Benztropine; Bicarbonate, Sodium; Bromocriptine; Charcoal, Activated; Cimetidine and Other H2 Blockers; Dantrolene; Diazoxide; Digoxin-Specific Antibodies; Diphenhydramine; Esmolol; Ethanol; Fomepizole (4-Methylpyrazole, 4-MP); Glucagon; Glucose; Haloperidol and Droperidol; Isoproterenol; Labetalol; Lidocaine; Methocarbamol; Morphine; Neuromuscular Blockers; Nicotinamide (Niacinamide); Nifedipine; Nitroprusside; Octreotide; Penicillamine; Pentobarbital; Phenobarbital; Phentolamine; Physostigmine and Neostigmine; Propranolol; Protamine; Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6); Thiamine (Vitamin B1); Vitamin K1 (Phytonadione)

Paul A. Khasigian, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, University of California, San Francisco, Madera
Section II: Phosphine and Phosphides; Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

Susan Y. Kim-Katz, PharmD
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
susank@calpoison.org
Section II: Antidiabetic Agents; Antineoplastic Agents; Beta-2 Adrenergic Stimulants; Food Poisoning: Bacterial; Food Poisoning: Fish and Shellfish; Jellyfish and Other Cnidaria; Salicylates; Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

Lada Kokan, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco
lada.kokan@telus.net
Section II: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Michael J. Kosnett, MD, MPH
Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver
michael.kosnett@uchsc.edu
Section II: Arsenic; Arsine; Lead; Mercury; Section III: BAL (Dimercaprol); EDTA, Calcium (Calcium Disodium EDTA, Calcium Disodium Edetate, Calcium Disodium Versenate); Succimer (DMSA); Unithiol (DMPS)

Allyson Kreshak, MD
Medical Toxicology Fellow, Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology, University of California, San Diego
Section II: Ethanol; Phosphorus

Grant D. Lackey, PharmD, PhD, CSPI, FASCP
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Davis; Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
glackey@calpoison.org
Section II: Antipsychotic Drugs, Including Phenothiazines; Section III: Phenytoin and Fosphenytoin

Chi-Leung Lai, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, Davis; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
clai@calpoison.org
Section II: Boric Acid, Borates, and Boron

Darren H. Lew, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
dlew@calpoison.org
Section II: Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides

Jon Lorett, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
jlorett@calpoison.org
Section II: Ipecac Syrup; Section III: Ipecac Syrup

Derrick Lung, MD, MPH
Medical Toxicology Fellow, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division; University of California, San Francisco
Section II: Caustic & Corrosive Agents; Hydrocarbons; Section III: Carnitine

Binh T. Ly, MD, FACMT, FACEP
Professor of Emergency Medicine; Director, Medical Toxicology Fellowship Program, Division of Medical Toxicology; Director, Emergency Medicine Residency Program; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego; California Poison Control System
bly@ucsd.edu
Section II: Hydrogen Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid; Methylene Chloride; Section III: Calcium

Tatiana M. Mamantov, MD
Medical Toxicology Fellow, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Section II: Freons & Halons; Section III: DTPA

Beth H. Manning, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
bmanning@calpoison.org
Section II: Anticholinergics; Antihistamines

Anthony S. Manoguerra, PharmD
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy and Associate Dean, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego
amanoguerra@ucsd.edu
Section II: Iron

Kathy Marquardt, PharmD, DABAT
Associate Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Associate Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis; Senior Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
kmarquardt@calpoison.org
Section II: Mushrooms; Mushrooms, Amatoxin-Type

Michael J. Matteucci, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor and Medical Toxicology Fellow, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego; Attending Physician, University of California Medical Center, San Diego; Attending Physician, Naval Medical Center, San Diego
mmatteucci@ucsd.edu
Section II: Isopropyl Alcohol

Kathryn H. Meier, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
kmeier@calpoison.org
Section II: Dapsone; Fluoride; Magnesium; Section III: Hydroxocobalamin

Alicia Minns, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego
Section II: Barium; Isoniazid

S. Todd Mitchell, MD, MPH
Dominican Hospital, Watsonville, California
Section III: Silymarin or Milk Thistle

Eileen Morentz
Poison Information Provider, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
morentz@calpoison.org
Section II: Nontoxic or Minimally Toxic Household Products

Stephen W. Munday, MD, MPH, MS
Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego; Assistant Director of Outpatient Medicine, Medical Toxicologist, Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego
stephen.munday@sharp.com
Section II: Hydrogen Sulfide

Joshua Nogar, MD
Medical Toxicology Fellow, Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology, University of California, San Diego
Section II: Hydrogen Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid; Methylene Chloride; Section III: Calcium

Sean Patrick Nordt, MD, PharmD, DABAT
Assistant Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine and Director, Section of Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles
Section II: Strychnine

Steve Offerman, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis
steve.offerman@gmail.com
Section II: Fluoroacetate

Kent R. Olson, MD, FACEP, FACMT, FAACT
Clinical Professor of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
olson@calpoison.org
Section I: Emergency Evaluation and Treatment; Section II: Acetaminophen; Carbon Monoxide; Smoke Inhalation; Theophylline; Section III: Oxygen & Hyperbaric Oxygen; Section IV: Emergency Medical Response to Hazardous Materials Incidents; The Toxic Hazards of Industrial and Occupational Chemicals

Michael A. O'Malley, MD, MPH
Associate Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
maomalley@ucdavis.edu
Section II: Chlorophenoxy Herbicides

Kelly P. Owen, MD
Fellow, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento
Section II: Iodine

Cyrus Rangan, MD
Assistant Medical Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division; Director, Toxics Epidemiology Program, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services; Attending Staff, Children's Hospital, Los Angeles
crangan@calpoison.org
Section II: Clonidine and Related Drugs

Freda M. Rowley, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
frowley@calpoison.org
Section II: Anticonvulsants, Newer; Section III: Iodide (Potassium Iodide, KI)

Thomas R. Sands, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Associate Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
tsands@calpoison.org
Section II: Bromates; Chlorates

Aaron Schneir, MD
Assistant Professor, Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Medical Center, San Diego
aschneir@ucsd.edu
Section II: Nitrous Oxide

Jay Schrader, CPhT
Poison Information Provider, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
jschrader@calpoison.org
Section II: Nontoxic or Minimally Toxic Household Products

Craig Smollin, MD
Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Associate Director, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
Section II: Glysophate; Phenytoin

Karl A. Sporer, MD
Associate Clinical Professor, University of California, San Francisco; Attending Physician, San Francisco General Hospital
ksporer@sfghed.ucsf.edu
Section II: Tetanus; Section III: Tetanus Toxoid and Immune Globulin

Jeffrey R. Suchard, MD, FACEP
Assistant Clinical Professor, Director of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Medical Center, Irvine
jsuchard@uci.edu
Section II: Spiders

Mark E. Sutter, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento
Section II: Colchicine

Winnie W. Tai, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
tai@calpoison.org
Section II: Metaldehyde; Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

David A. Tanen, MD
Assistant Program Director and Research Director, Emergency Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, San Diego
dtanen@yahoo.com
Section II: Warfare Agents–Biological; Warfare Agents–Chemical

R. Steven Tharratt, MD, MPVM
Professor of Medicine and Anesthesiology, Chief, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento
rstharratt@ucdavis.edu
Section II: Ammonia; Chlorine; Section IV: Emergency Medical Response to Hazardous Materials Incidents

Christian Tomaszewski, MD
Professor of Clinical Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego
Section II: Calcium Antagonists; Section III: Lipid Emulsion

Ben T. Tsutaoka, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, San Francisco Division
btsutaoka@calpoison.org
Section II: Benzodiazepines; Sedative-Hypnotic Agents; Section III: Nitrite, Sodium & Amyl; Vasopressin

Rais Vohra, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Francisco–Fresno
raisvohra@hotmail.com
Section II: Antimony and Stibine; Organophosphates and Carbamates

Michael J. Walsh, PharmD
Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco; Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Sacramento Division
mwalsh@calpoison.org
Section II: Detergents

Janet Weiss, MD
Director of Toxicology, TheToxDoc, Berkeley, California
toxdoc@yahoo.com
Section II: Ethylene Dibromide; Toluene and Xylene

R. David West, PharmD
Toxicology Management Specialist, California Poison Control System, Fresno/Madera Division
dwest@calpoison.org
Section III: Magnesium

Joyce Wong, PharmD
Emergency Medicine Clinical Pharmacist, Pharmaceutical Services, San Francisco General Hospital
Section II: Diuretics; Vitamins; Section III: Naloxone & Nalmefene

Olga F. Woo, PharmD
Associate Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
2tao.olga@gmail.com
Section II: Antibacterial Agents; Antiviral and Antiretroviral Agents

Alan H. B. Wu, PhD
Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
wualan@labmed2.ucsf.edu
Section I: Toxicology Screening

Lisa Wu, MD
Clinical Instructor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
lisawu5@hotmail.com
Section II: Amantadine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) and Other Hallucinogens

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