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Kidney stones are one of the most common urologic problems. In the United States, ~13% of men and 7% of women will develop a kidney stone during their lifetimes, and the prevalence is increasing throughout the industrialized world.

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Types of Stones

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Calcium salts, uric acid, cystine, and struvite are the constituents of most kidney stones in the western hemisphere (Chap. e14). Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones make up 75–85% of the total (Table 287-1) and those constituents may be admixed in the same stone. Calcium phosphate in stones is usually hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH] or, less commonly, brushite (CaHPO4H2O), although the incidence of brushite stones is increasing.

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Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 287-1 Major Causes of Renal Stones 

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