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Kidney stones are one of the most common urologic problems. In the United States, ~13% of men and 7% of women will develop a kidney stone during their lifetimes, and the prevalence is increasing throughout the industrialized world.


Types of Stones


Calcium salts, uric acid, cystine, and struvite are the constituents of most kidney stones in the western hemisphere (Chap. e14). Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones make up 75–85% of the total (Table 287-1) and those constituents may be admixed in the same stone. Calcium phosphate in stones is usually hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH] or, less commonly, brushite (CaHPO4H2O), although the incidence of brushite stones is increasing.

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Table 287-1 Major Causes of Renal Stones

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