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Normochloremic metabolic acidosis generally results from addition of organic acids such as lactate, acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and exogenous toxins. Other anions such as isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, and D-lactate may contribute to the anion gap of lactic acidosis, DKA, and acidosis of unknown etiology. Uremia causes an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis from unexcreted organic acids and anions (Table 21–13).

Table 21–13.Common causes and therapy for increased anion gap metabolic acidosis.

A. Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is ...

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