Chapter 9: Neurotransmitter Systems II: Monoamines, Purines, Neuropeptides, & Unconventional Neurotransmitters
In the central nervous system (CNS), all monoamine (biogenic amine) cell bodies are found in the
A. cerebral cortex or cerebellum.
B. spinal cord or brainstem.
C. brainstem or hypothalamus.
D. hypothalamus or basal forebrain.
E. sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia.
C. All the monoamine/biogenic amine cell bodies are located in the brainstem or hypothalamus.
Monoamine (biogenic amine) neurons project to and synapse onto neurons in
A. only the autonomic nervous system.
C. predominantly the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum.
D. many areas of the cerebral cortex, subcortical regions, and spinal cord.
E. mainly the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain.
D. The monoamine/biogenic amine neurons project throughout the brain and spinal cord to many areas of the cerebral cortex, to key subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and hippocampus, and to the spinal cord.
A patient was treated with a drug whose basic mechanism involves the activation of second messengers. Which of the following statements is correct regarding second messengers within neurons?
A. They most frequently generate a marked hypersensitization of most types of receptors.
B. They regulate gene expression that controls the levels and types of proteins synthesized.
C. They generally do not affect the opening or closing of ion channels.
D. Glutamate typically generates inhibitory effects upon metabotropic receptors.
E. They are directly involved in the gating of nonselective cation channels by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors.
B. Second messengers often lead to desensitization of receptors. Second messengers regulate protein kinases, which can control transcription and translation and hence affect gene expression. Second messengers can directly gate ion channels and also regulate protein kinases, which can also control opening or closing of ion channels. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors is typically excitatory. NMDA receptors are gated by glutamate binding (although they can be indirectly affected by second messengers and protein kinases).
Which of the following best describes neuropeptides (NPs)?
A. NPs are usually released by the presynaptic terminus ...