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SYMPTOMS OF OCULAR DISEASE

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1. Redness

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Redness may be due to hyperemia of the conjunctival, ciliary, or episcleral vessels; erythema of the eyelids; or subconjunctival hemorrhage (eFigure 7–1). The major differential diagnoses are conjunctivitis, corneal disorders, acute glaucoma, and acute uveitis (see Table 7–1).

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Table 7–1.The inflamed eye: differential diagnosis of common causes.
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eFigure 7–1.

Spontaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage while receiving warfarin. (From the University of California, Davis, Cornea and External Diseases. Reproduced, with permission, from Riordan-Eva P, Cunningham ET Jr. Vaughan & Asbury's General Ophthalmology, 18th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011.)

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Cagini  C  et al. Reasons for visits to an emergency center and hemostatic alterations in patients with recurrent spontaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar–Apr;26(2):188–92.
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Carlisle  RT  et al. Differential diagnosis of the swollen red eyelid. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Jul 15;92(2):106–12.
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Dunlop  AL  et al. Approach to red eye for primary care practitioners. Prim Care. 2015 Sep;42(3):267–84.
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Narayana  S  et al. Diagnosis of the 'red eye': a systematic review. Am J Med. 2015 Nov;128(11):1220–4.e1.
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2. Ocular Discomfort

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Ocular pain may be caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, or rapid or marked increase in intraocular pressure.

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Foreign body sensation may be due to corneal or conjunctival foreign bodies, disturbance of the corneal epithelium, or rubbing of eyelashes against the cornea (trichiasis).

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Photophobia is usually due to corneal inflammation (keratitis) or anterior uveitis (iritis). Other causes are albinism, aniridia, cone dystrophy, or fever associated with various systemic infections.

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Itching is characteristically associated with allergic eye disease.

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Scratching and burning from dryness of the eyes may be due to lacrimal gland hypofunction, secondary to systemic disorders (eg, Sjögren disease) or drugs (eg, ...

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