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Chapter 38. Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition & Volume

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Dehydration increases the plasma concentration of all the following hormones except

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A. vasopressin.

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B. angiotensin II.

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C. aldosterone.

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D. norepinephrine.

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E. atrial natriuretic peptide.

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The correct answer is E. ANP is released by the atria in the presence of atrial pressure increase due to central volume increase.

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In a patient who has become dehydrated, body water should be replaced by intravenous infusion of

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A. distilled water.

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B. 0.9% sodium chloride solution.

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C. 5% glucose solution.

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D. hyperoncotic albumin.

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E. 10% glucose solution.

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The correct answer is B. Albumin will cause an increase in central volume expansion but will not affect extra- vascular volume. Dextrose 5% in water is often given for individuals with normovolemia, but not glucose that may cause insulin release and will be excreted once transport maximum is surpassed rather than affecting volume expansion. Distilled water will cause edema of brain tissue and extravascular tissue.

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Renin is secreted by

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A. cells in the macula densa.

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B. cells in the proximal tubules.

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C. cells in the distal tubules.

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D. granular cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

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E. cells in the peritubular capillary bed.

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The correct answer is D. The JG cells are located close to the macula densa between afferent and efferent arterioles.

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Erythropoietin is secreted by

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A. cells in the macula densa.

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B. cells in the proximal tubules.

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C. cells in the distal tubules.

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D. granular cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

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E. cells in the peritubular capillary bed.

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The correct answer is E. Erythropoietin is secreted by cells in the peritubular capillary bed of the kidney.

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When a woman who has been on a low-sodium diet for 8 days is given an intravenous injection of captopril, a drug that inhibits ACE, which of the following would be expected?

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