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Chapter 20. The Adrenal Medulla & Adrenal Cortex

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Which of the following is produced only by large amounts of glucocorticoids?

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A. Normal responsiveness of fat depots to norepinephrine

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B. Maintenance of normal vascular reactivity

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C. Increased excretion of a water load

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D. Inhibition of the inflammatory response

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E. Inhibition of ACTH secretion

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The correct answer is D. High levels of glucocorticoids are necessary to inhibit the immune response and that is why slow weaning off of the glucocorticoids is necessary when they are stopped. Chronic elevated levels of glucocorticoids increase body fat deposition. Vascular reactivity and water reabsorption are increased as well. Glucocorticoids stimulate ACTH secretion.

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Which of the following are incorrectly paired?

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A. Gluconeogenesis : Cortisol

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B. Free fatty acid mobilization : Dehydroepiandrosterone

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C. Muscle glycogenolysis : Epinephrine

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D. Kaliuresis : Aldosterone

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E. Hepatic glycogenesis : Insulin

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The correct answer is B. Free fatty acids are mobilized by epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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Which of the following hormones has the shortest plasma half-life?

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A. Corticosterone

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B. Renin

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C. Dehydroepiandrosterone

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D. Aldosterone

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E. Norepinephrine

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The correct answer is E. NE half life is approximately 2 min. Corticosterone half life is 60–90 min renin is 10–15 min; DHEA is 15–38 min; aldosterone is 20 min.

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A 60-year-old man is brought to the ED with pulmonary symptoms. He is found to have pneumonia and is treated with glucocorticoids. The physician says this treatment will not work immediately due to its actions at what receptor?

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A. G-protein receptors

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B. Intracellular receptors

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C. Cell surface receptors

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D. Tyrosine kinase receptors

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The correct answer is B. Glucocorticoids bind to receptors in the cytoplasm and move to the nucleus to affect DNA transcription by bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE). The time is at least 2–6 h for new protein synthesis to occur.

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A 29-year-old woman comes to see her physician with complaints ...

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