Skip to Main Content

++

ASTHMA

++

Population

++

  • –Children

++

Recommendation

++

Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2012

++

  • –Pregnant women and parents of young children should be advised not to smoke.

++

Source

++
++

Comments

++

  • –Level of Evidence B.

  • –Passive smoking increases the risk of allergic sensitization in children.

++

Population

++

  • –Adults and children over 5 y

++

Recommendation

++

Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2012

++

  • –Reducing exposure to asthma "triggers" can reduce asthma exacerbations and improve asthma control.

    • Mattress encasing for mite control

    • Eliminate suitable environments for cockroaches

    • Eliminate passive smoke exposure

    • Reduce aggravating occupational exposures

++

Source

++
++

BACK PAIN, LOW

++

Population

++

  • –Adults

++

Recommendation

++

AAFP 2004, USPSTF 2004

++

  • –Insufficient evidence for or against the use of interventions to prevent low back pain in adults in primary care settings.

++

Source

++
++

Comment

++

  • –Insufficient evidence to support back strengthening exercises, mechanical supports, or increased physical activity to prevent low back pain.

++

PRIMARY PREVENTION OF CANCER (CA): NCI EVIDENCE SUMMARY 2016

++

BREAST CANCER

++

Minimize Risk Factor Exposure

++

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (SOLID)

    • Approximately 26% increased incidence of invasive breast cancer (CA) with combination hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (estrogen and progesterone).

    • Estrogen alone with mixed evidence—unlikely to increase risk significantly (decreases risk in African Americans).

  • Ionizing Radiation to Chest and Mediastinum (SOLID)

    • Increased risk occurs approximately 10 y after exposure. Risk depends on dose and age at exposure (woman with radiation from age 15–30 y at highest risk).

  • Obesity (SOLID)

    • In Women's Health Initiative (WHI), relative risk (RR) = 2.85 for breast CA for women >82.2 kg compared with women <58.7 kg

  • Alcohol (SOLID)

    • RR for intake of 4 alcoholic drinks/d is 1.32

    • RR increases approximately 7% for each drink per day

  • Factors of Unproven or Disproven Association (SOLID)

    • Abortions

    • Environmental factors

    • Diet and vitamins

++

Epidemiologic studies suggest vitamin D may decrease risk of breast cancer and breast cancer recurrence. Randomized controlled trials are needed. (N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1385) (Medicine. 2013;92:123)

++

  • Active and passive cigarette smoking

  • Use of statin drugs

  • Use of low-dose daily aspirin

++

Population based studies have shown reduction in breast CA risk with one aspirin daily but more data needed. (J Clin Oncol. 2010;25:1467) (Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:518)

++

  • Use of bisphosphonates for >1yr. with 28% relative reduction in risk for post-menopausal breast CA (...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.