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SYMPTOMS OF OCULAR DISEASE

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1. Redness

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Redness may be due to hyperemia of the conjunctival, ciliary, or episcleral vessels (eFigure 7–1); erythema of the eyelids; or subconjunctival hemorrhage (eFigure 7–2). The major differential diagnoses are conjunctivitis, corneal disorders, acute glaucoma, and acute uveitis (see Table 7–1).

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eFigure 7–1.

Hyperemia of ciliary and episcleral vessels. (Courtesy of Ed Lee.)

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eFigure 7–2.

Spontaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage while receiving warfarin. (Courtesy of University of California, Davis, Cornea and External Diseases. Reproduced, with permission, from Riordan-Eva P, Cunningham ET Jr. Vaughan & Asbury's General Ophthalmology, 18th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011.)

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Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 7–1.The inflamed eye: Differential diagnosis of common causes.
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Tarlan  B  et al.. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:1163–70.
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Watkinson  S. Assessment and management of patients with acute red eye. Nurs Older People. 2013 Jun;25(5):27–34.
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Welch  JF  et al.. Red Alert: diagnosis and management of the acute red eye. J R Nav Med Serv. 2014;100(1):42–6.
[PubMed: 24881426]  

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2. Ocular Discomfort

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Ocular pain may be caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, or rapid or marked increase in intraocular pressure.

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Foreign body sensation may be due to corneal or conjunctival foreign bodies, disturbance of the corneal epithelium, or rubbing of eyelashes against the cornea (trichiasis).

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Photophobia is usually due to corneal inflammation (keratitis) or anterior uveitis (iritis). Other causes are albinism, aniridia, cone dystrophy, or fever associated with various systemic infections.

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Itching is characteristically associated with allergic eye disease.

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Scratching and burning from dryness of the eyes may be due to lacrimal gland hypofunction, secondary to systemic disorders (eg, Sjögren disease) or drugs (eg, atropine-like agents); ocular surface disease; or dry environment.

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Watering is usually due to inadequate tear drainage through obstruction of ...

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