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INTRODUCTION

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The common systemic disorders that have associated cardiac manifestations are summarized in Table 290e-1.

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Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 290e-1Common Systemic Disorders and their Associated Cardiac Manifestations
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DIABETES MELLITUS

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(See also Chap. 417) Diabetes mellitus, both insulin- and non-insulin-dependent, is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD; Chap. 291e) and accounts for 14–50% of new cases of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, CAD is the most common cause of death in adults with diabetes mellitus. In the diabetic population, the incidence of CAD relates to the duration of diabetes and the level of glycemic control, and its pathogenesis involves endothelial dysfunction, increased lipoprotein peroxidation, increased inflammation, a prothrombotic state, and associated metabolic abnormalities.

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Compared to their nondiabetic counterparts, diabetic patients are more likely to have a myocardial infarction, have a greater burden of CAD, have larger infarct size, and have more postinfarct complications, including heart failure, shock, and death. Importantly, diabetic patients are more likely to have atypical ischemic symptoms; nausea, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, arrhythmias, heart block, or syncope may be their anginal equivalent. Additionally, “silent ischemia,” resulting from autonomic nervous system dysfunction, is more common in diabetic patients, accounting for up to 90% of their ischemic episodes. Thus, one must have a low threshold for suspecting CAD in diabetic patients. The treatment of diabetic patients with CAD must include aggressive risk factor management (Chap. 418). Considerations regarding pharmacologic therapy and revascularization strategies are similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients except that diabetic patients have higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with revascularization, have an increased risk of ...

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