Blastomycosis is a systemic pyogranulomatous infection, involving primarily the lungs, that follows inhalation of the conidia of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Pulmonary blastomycosis varies from an asymptomatic infection to acute or chronic pneumonia. Hematogenous dissemination to skin, bones, and the genitourinary system is common; however, almost any organ can be involved.
B. dermatitidis is the asexual state of Ajellomyces dermatitidis. Two serotypes have been identified on the basis of the presence or absence of the A antigen. Distinct genotypic groups have been differentiated by rDNA polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellite markers. B. dermatitidis exhibits thermal dimorphism, growing as the mycelial phase at room temperature and as the yeast phase at 37°C. Primary isolation in the laboratory is most dependable for the mycelial phase incubated at 30°C. Definitive identification usually requires conversion to the yeast phase at 37°C or—now more commonly—the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques that detect mycelial-phase growth. Under the microscope, the yeast cells are usually 8–15 μm in diameter, have thick refractile cell walls, are multinucleate, and exhibit a single, large, broad-based bud (Fig. 238-1).
Blastomyces dermatitidis broad-based budding yeast in the aspirate of a chest wall abscess. Note the presence of multiple nuclei, the thickened cell wall, and the broad-based bud.
Most cases of blastomycosis have been reported in North America. Endemic areas include the southeastern and south-central states bordering the Mississippi and Ohio river basins, the midwestern states, and the Canadian provinces bordering the Great Lakes. A small endemic area exists in New York and Canada along the St. Lawrence River. Acute blastomycosis is typically found only in North America, and the clinical presentation of blastomycosis in nonendemic areas is as a chronic disease.
Outside North America, blastomycosis occurs sporadically in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Lebanon, and India. The disease has been reported most frequently in Africa.
Early studies indicated that middle-aged men with outdoor occupations were at greatest risk. Reported outbreaks, however, do not suggest a predilection according to sex, age, race, occupation, or season. The specific niche in nature in which the organism resides remains uncertain; B. dermatitidis probably grows as microfoci in the warm, moist soil of wooded areas rich in organic debris. Inhalation of conidia following exposure to soil, whether related to work or recreation, appears to be the common factor associated with infection. Outbreaks of human disease may be preceded by the occurrence of disease in simultaneously exposed dogs. Zoonotic transmission is rare but has been reported in association with dog bites, pet kinkajou bites, cat scratches, and animal necropsies.
Alveolar macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes are critical for phagocytosis and killing of the inhaled conidia ...