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Etiology

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  • Toxins: NSAIDs, antibiotics, contrast, multiple myeloma, rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, chemotherapy, hyperuricemia, cyclosporine

  • Ischemia, e.g., prolonged prerenal azotemia

DDx

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  • Prerenal azotemia, eg, dehydration

  • Postrenal azotemia, eg, benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • Other renal causes of acute renal failure

    • Acute glomerulonephritis: immune complex (eg, IgA nephropathy), pauci-immune (eg, Wegener’s granulomatosis), anti-GBM disease

    • Acute interstitial nephritis: drugs (eg, ß-lactams), infections (eg, Streptococcus), immune (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus)

See related DDx

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