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    • Toxins: NSAIDs, antibiotics, contrast, multiple myeloma, rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, chemotherapy, hyperuricemia, cyclosporine

    • Ischemia, e.g., prolonged prerenal azotemia


    • Prerenal azotemia, eg, dehydration

    • Postrenal azotemia, eg, benign prostatic hyperplasia

    • Other renal causes of acute renal failure

      • Acute glomerulonephritis: immune complex (eg, IgA nephropathy), pauci-immune (eg, Wegener’s granulomatosis), anti-GBM disease

      • Acute interstitial nephritis: drugs (eg, ß-lactams), infections (eg, Streptococcus), immune (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus)

    See related DDx