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  • "Idiopathic" (probably autoimmune)

  • Drugs: chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone, gold salts, sulfonamides, phenytoin, carbamazepine, quinacrine, tolbutamide

  • Viruses: hepatitis, EBV, HIV, parvovirus B19

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  • Toxins: benzene, toluene, insecticides

  • Posthepatitis

  • Pregnancy

  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

  • Congenital (rare)


  • Acute leukemia

  • Myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Bone marrow infiltrative process, e.g., tumor, infection, granulomatous disease

  • Hypersplenism

  • Viral infection, e.g., parvovirus B19, hepatitis, HIV

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

See related DDx