This Appendix contains tables of reference values for laboratory tests, special analytes, and special function tests. A variety of factors can influence reference values. Such variables include the population studied, the duration and means of specimen transport, laboratory methods and instrumentation, and even the type of container used for the collection of the specimen. The reference or “normal” ranges given in this appendix may therefore not be appropriate for all laboratories, and these values should only be used as general guidelines. Whenever possible, reference values provided by the laboratory performing the testing should be utilized in the interpretation of laboratory data. Values supplied in this Appendix reflect typical reference ranges in adults. Pediatric reference ranges may vary significantly from adult values.
In preparing the Appendix, the authors have taken into account the fact that the system of international units (SI, système international d'unités) is used in most countries and in some medical journals. However, clinical laboratories may continue to report values in “traditional” or conventional units. Therefore, both systems are provided in the Appendix. The dual system is also used in the text except for (1) those instances in which the numbers remain the same but only the terminology is changed (mmol/L for meq/L or IU/L for mIU/mL), when only the SI units are given; and (2) most pressure measurements (e.g., blood and cerebrospinal fluid pressures), when the traditional units (mmHg, mmH2O) are used. In all other instances in the text the SI unit is followed by the traditional unit in parentheses.
Table 1 Hematology and Coagulation
|Analyte||Specimen||SI Units||Conventional Units|
|Activated clotting time||WB||70–180 s||70–180 s|
|Activated protein C resistance (factor V Leiden)||P||Not applicable||Ratio >2.1|
|ADAMTS13 inhibitor activity||P||Not applicable||≤0.4 U|
|ADAMTS13 antibody||P||Not applicable||≤18 U|
|Antiphospholipid antibody panel|
| PTT-LA (lupus anticoagulant screen)||P||Negative||Negative|
| Platelet neutralization procedure||P||Negative||Negative|
| Dilute viper venom screen||P||Negative||Negative|
| Anticardiolipin antibody||S|
| IgG||0–15 arbitrary units||0–15 GPL|
| IgM||0–15 arbitrary units||0–15 MPL|
| Antigenic||220–390 mg/L||22–39 mg/dL|
| Functional||0.7–1.30 U/L||70–130 %|
|Anti-Xa assay (heparin assay)||P|
| Unfractionated heparin||0.3–0.7 kIU/L||0.3–0.7 IU/mL|
| Low-molecular-weight heparin||0.5–1.0 kIU/L||0.5–1.0 IU/mL|
| Danaparoid (Orgaran)||0.5–0.8 kIU/L||0.5–0.8 IU/mL|
|Autohemolysis test with glucose||WB||0.003–0.007||0.3–0.7%|
|Bleeding time (adult)||<7.1 min||<7.1 min|
|Bone marrow: See Table 7|
|Clot retraction||WB||0.50–1.00/2 h||50–100%/2 h|
|D-dimer||P||220–740 ng/mL FEU||220–740 ng/mL FEU|
|Differential blood count||Relative counts:|
| Basophils ...|
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