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Mountains cover one-fifth of the earth's surface; 38 million people live permanently at altitudes ≥2400 m, and 100 million people travel to high-altitude locations each year. Skiers in Aspen, religious pilgrims to Lhasa, trekkers and climbers to Kilimanjaro or Everest, and military personnel deployed to high-altitude locales are all at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and other altitude-related problems. AMS is the benign form of altitude illness, whereas HACE and HAPE are life-threatening. Altitude illness is likely to occur above 2500 m but has been documented even at 1500–2500 m.


Ascent to a high altitude subjects the body to a decrease in barometric pressure that results in a decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired gas in the lungs. This change leads in turn to less pressure driving oxygen diffusion from the alveoli and throughout the oxygen cascade. A normal initial “struggle response” to such an ascent includes increased ventilation, which is the cornerstone of acclimation. Hyperventilation may cause respiratory alkalosis and dehydration. Alkalosis may depress the ventilatory drive during sleep, with consequent periodic breathing and hypoxemia. During early acclimation, renal suppression of carbonic anhydrase and excretion of dilute alkaline urine combat alkalosis and tend to bring the pH of the blood to normal. Other physiologic changes during normal acclimation include increased sympathetic tone; increased erythropoietin levels, leading to increased hemoglobin levels and red blood cell mass; increased tissue capillary density and mitochondrial numbers; and higher levels of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, enhancing oxygen utilization. Even with normal acclimation, however, ascent to a high altitude decreases maximal exercise tolerance and increases susceptibility to cold injury due to peripheral vasoconstriction. Finally, if the ascent is made faster than the body can adapt to the stress of hypobaric hypoxemia, altitude-related disease states can result.


Acute Mountain Sickness and High-Altitude Cerebral Edema


AMS is a neurologic syndrome characterized by nonspecific symptoms (headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness) with a paucity of physical findings developing 6–12 h after ascent to a high altitude. AMS must be distinguished from exhaustion, dehydration, hypothermia, alcoholic hangover, and hyponatremia. AMS and HACE are thought to represent opposite ends of a continuum of altitude-related neurologic disorders. HACE (but not AMS) is an encephalopathy whose hallmarks are ataxia and altered consciousness with diffuse cerebral involvement but generally without focal neurologic deficits. Progression to these signal manifestations can be rapid. Papilledema and, more commonly, retinal hemorrhages may also be seen. Retinal hemorrhages occur frequently at ≥5000 m, even in individuals without clinical symptoms of AMS or HACE. It is unclear whether retinal hemorrhage and cerebral hemorrhage at high altitude are caused by the same mechanism; however, one report revealed a correlation between HACE and retinopathy.


The most important risk factors for the development of altitude illness are the rate of ascent and a history of high-altitude illness. Exertion is a risk factor, but lack of physical fitness ...

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