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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible ( COPD includes emphysema, an anatomically defined condition characterized by destruction and enlargement of the lung alveoli; chronic bronchitis, a clinically defined condition with chronic cough and phlegm; and small airways disease, a condition in which small bronchioles are narrowed. COPD is present only if chronic airflow obstruction occurs; chronic bronchitis without chronic airflow obstruction is not included within COPD.


COPD is the fourth leading cause of death and affects >10 million persons in the United States. COPD is also a disease of increasing public health importance around the world. Estimates suggest that COPD will rise from the sixth to the third most common cause of death worldwide by 2020.


Cigarette Smoking


By 1964, the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States had concluded that cigarette smoking was a major risk factor for mortality from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Subsequent longitudinal studies have shown accelerated decline in the volume of air exhaled within the first second of the forced expiratory maneuver (FEV1) in a dose-response relationship to the intensity of cigarette smoking, which is typically expressed as pack-years (average number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the total number of years of smoking). This dose-response relationship between reduced pulmonary function and cigarette smoking intensity accounts for the higher prevalence rates for COPD with increasing age. The historically higher rate of smoking among males is the likely explanation for the higher prevalence of COPD among males; however, the prevalence of COPD among females is increasing as the gender gap in smoking rates has diminished in the past 50 years.


Although the causal relationship between cigarette smoking and the development of COPD has been absolutely proved, there is considerable variability in the response to smoking. Although pack-years of cigarette smoking is the most highly significant predictor of FEV1 (Fig. 260-1), only 15% of the variability in FEV1 is explained by pack-years. This finding suggests that additional environmental and/or genetic factors contribute to the impact of smoking on the development of airflow obstruction.

Figure 260-1
Graphic Jump Location

Distributions of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values in a general population sample, stratified by pack-years of smoking. Means, medians, and ±1 standard deviation of percent predicted FEV1 are shown for each smoking group. Although a dose-response relationship between smoking intensity and FEV1 was found, marked variability in pulmonary function was observed among subjects with similar smoking histories. (From B Burrows et al: Am Rev Respir Dis 115:95, 1977; with permission.)


Although cigar and pipe smoking may also be associated with the development of COPD, the evidence supporting ...

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