Surgical techniques for orthotopic transplantation of the heart were devised in the 1960s and taken into the clinical arena in 1967. The procedures did not gain widespread clinical acceptance until the introduction of “modern” and more effective immunosuppression in the early 1980s. By the 1990s, the demand for transplantable hearts met, and then exceeded, the available donor supply and leveled off at about 4000 heart transplantations annually worldwide, according to data from the Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Subsequently, heart transplantation activity in the United States has remained stable at ~2200 per year, but worldwide activity reported to this registry has decreased somewhat. This apparent decline in numbers may be a result of the fact that reporting is legally mandated in the United States but not elsewhere, and several countries have started their own databases.
Donor and recipient hearts are excised in virtually identical operations with incisions made across the atria and atrial septum at the mid-atrial level (with the posterior walls of the atria left in place) and across the great vessels just above the semilunar valves. The donor heart is generally “harvested” by a separate surgical team, transported from the donor hospital in a bag of iced saline solution, and reanastomosed into the waiting recipient in the orthotopic or normal anatomic position. The only change in surgical technique since this method was first described has been a movement in recent years to move the right atrial anastomosis back to the level of the superior and inferior venae cavae to better preserve right atrial geometry and prevent atrial arrhythmias. Both methods of implantation leave the recipient with a surgically denervated heart that does not respond to any direct sympathetic or parasympathetic stimuli but does respond to circulating catecholamines. The physiologic responses of the denervated heart to the demands of exercise are atypical but quite adequate for continuation of normal physical activity.
In the United States, the allocation of donor organs is accomplished under the supervision of the United Network for Organ Sharing, a private organization under contract to the federal government. The United States is divided geographically into eleven regions for donor heart allocation. Allocation of donor hearts within a region is decided according to a system of priority that takes into account (1) the severity of illness, (2) the geographic distance from the donor, and (3) the patient’s time on the waiting list. A physiologic limit of ~3 h of “ischemic” (out-of-body) time for hearts precludes a national sharing of hearts. This allocation system design is reissued annually and is responsive to input from a variety of constituencies, including both donor families and transplantation professionals.
At the current time, the highest priority according to severity of illness is assigned to patients requiring hospitalization at the transplantation center for IV inotropic support, with a pulmonary artery catheter in place for hemodynamic monitoring, or to patients requiring mechanical circulatory support—i.e., use of an intra-aortic balloon pump or a right or left ventricular assist device (RVAD, LVAD), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mechanical ventilation. The second highest priority is given to patients requiring ongoing inotropic support, but without a pulmonary artery catheter in place. All other patients are assigned a priority according to time accrued on the waiting list, and matching generally is based only on compatibility in terms of ABO blood group and gross body size.
While HLA matching of donor and recipient would be ideal, the relatively small numbers of patients as well as the time constraints involved make such matching impractical. However, some patients who are “presensitized” and have preexisting antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) undergo prospective cross-matching with the donor; these patients are commonly multiparous women or patients who have received multiple transfusions.
Heart failure is an increasingly common cause of death, particularly in the elderly. Most patients who reach what has recently been categorized as stage D, or refractory end-stage heart failure, are appropriately treated with compassionate end-of-life care. A subset of such patients who are younger and without significant comorbidities can be considered as candidates for heart transplantation. Exact criteria vary in different centers but generally take into consideration the patient’s physiologic age and the existence of comorbidities such as peripheral or cerebrovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, or chronic infection.
A registry organized by the ISHLT has tracked worldwide and U.S. survival rates after heart transplantation since 1982. The most recent update reveals survival rates of 83% and 76% 1 and 3 years after transplantation, respectively, or a posttransplantation “half-life” of 10.00 years (Fig. 281-1). The quality of life of survivors is generally excellent, with well over 90% of patients in the registry returning to normal and unrestricted function after transplantation.
Global survival rates after heart transplantation since 1982. Rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, which incorporates information from all transplant recipients for whom any follow-up has been provided. Because many patients are still alive and some patients have been lost to follow-up, the survival rates are estimates rather than exact figures because the time of death is not known for all patients. Therefore, 95% confidence limits are provided. (From J Stehlik et al: J Heart Lung Transplant 31:1052, 2012.)
Medical regimens employed to suppress the normal immune response to a solid organ allograft vary from center to center and are in a constant state of evolution, as more effective agents with improved side-effect profiles and less toxicity are introduced. All currently used regimens are nonspecific, providing general hyporeactivity to foreign antigens rather than donor-specific hyporeactivity and also causing the attendant, and unwanted, susceptibility to infections and malignancy. Most cardiac transplantation programs currently use a three-drug regimen that includes a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), an inhibitor of T cell proliferation or differentiation (azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, or sirolimus), and at least a short initial course of glucocorticoids. Many programs also include an initial “induction” course of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies to T cells in the perioperative period to decrease the frequency or severity of early posttransplantation rejection. Most recently introduced have been monoclonal antibodies (daclizumab and basiliximab) that block the interleukin 2 receptor and may prevent allograft rejection without additional global immunosuppression.
Cardiac allograft rejection is usually diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy conducted either on a surveillance basis or in response to clinical deterioration. Biopsy surveillance is performed on a regular basis in most programs for the first year postoperatively (or the first 5 years in many programs). Therapy consists of augmentation of immunosuppression, the intensity and duration of which are dictated by the severity of rejection.
LATE POSTTRANSPLANTATION MANAGEMENT ISSUES
Increasing numbers of heart transplant recipients are surviving for years following transplantation and constitute a population of patients with a number of long-term management issues.
Allograft Coronary Artery Disease
Despite usually having young donor hearts, cardiac allograft recipients are prone to develop coronary artery disease (CAD). This CAD is generally a diffuse, concentric, and longitudinal process that is quite different from “ordinary” atherosclerotic CAD, which is more focal and often eccentric. The underlying etiology most likely is primarily immunologic injury of the vascular endothelium, but a variety of risk factors influence the existence and progression of CAD, including nonimmunologic factors such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. It is hoped that newer and improved immunosuppressive modalities will reduce the incidence and impact of these devastating complications, which currently account for the majority of late posttransplantation deaths. Thus far, the immunosuppressive agents mycophenolate mofetil and the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors sirolimus and everolimus have been shown to be associated with short-term lower incidence and extent of coronary intimal thickening; in anecdotal reports, institution of sirolimus was associated with some reversal of CAD. The use of statins also is associated with a reduced incidence of this vasculopathy, and these drugs are now used almost universally in transplant recipients unless contraindicated. Palliation of CAD with percutaneous interventions is probably safe and effective in the short term, although the disease often advances relentlessly. Because of the denervated status of the organ, patients rarely experience angina pectoris, even in advanced stages of disease.
Retransplantation is the only definitive form of therapy for advanced allograft CAD. However, the scarcity of donor hearts makes the decision to pursue retransplantation in an individual patient difficult and ethically complex.
An increased incidence of malignancy is a well-recognized sequela of any program of chronic immunosuppression, and organ transplantation is no exception. Lymphoproliferative disorders are among the most frequent posttransplantation complications and, in most cases, seem to be driven by Epstein-Barr virus. Effective therapy includes reduction of immunosuppression (a clear “double-edged sword” in the setting of a life-sustaining organ), administration of antiviral agents, and traditional chemo- and radiotherapy. Most recently, specific antilymphocyte (CD20) therapy has shown great promise. Cutaneous malignancies (both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) also occur with increased frequency among transplant recipients and can follow aggressive courses. The role of decreasing immunosuppression in the treatment of these cancers is far less clear.
The use of currently available nonspecific immunosuppressive modalities to prevent allograft rejection naturally results in increased susceptibility to infectious complications in transplant recipients. Although the incidence has decreased since the introduction of cyclosporine, infections with unusual and opportunistic organisms are still the major cause of death during the first postoperative year and remain a threat to the chronically immunosuppressed patient throughout life. Effective therapy depends on careful surveillance for early signs and symptoms of opportunistic infection, an extremely aggressive approach to obtaining a specific diagnosis, and expertise in recognizing the more common clinical presentations of infections caused by CMV, Aspergillus, and other opportunistic agents.